Hoopoe

The Presence of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

تواجد طائر الهُدهُد في حدائق الشارقة ، دولة الإمارات العربية المُتحدة

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

Reference:  Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The Presence of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 139, July 2016. pp. 1-23. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-uae.webs.com/

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم . وَتَفَقَّدَ الطَّيْرَ فَقَالَ مَا لِيَ لَا أَرَى الْهُدْهُدَ أَمْ كَانَ مِنَ الْغَائِبِينَ . لَأُعَذِّبَنَّهُ عَذَابًا شَدِيدًا أَوْ لَأَذْبَحَنَّهُ أَوْ لَيَأْتِيَنِّي بِسُلْطَانٍ مُّبِينٍ . فَمَكَثَ غَيْرَ بَعِيدٍ فَقَالَ أَحَطتُ بِمَا لَمْ تُحِطْ بِهِ وَجِئْتُكَ مِن سَبَإٍ بِنَبَإٍ يَقِينٍ . سورة النمل ، الآيات 20-22 .

The Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of the Sharjah Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Al-Khan Lagoon, Sharjah, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 26.02.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/16657086426/

On Thursday 26th February 2015 I visited the Sharjah Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Al-Khan Lagoon, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates during my tour guiding of the Diplomat Tour 2015.

At around 15.00 hours, I observed a Hoopoe )Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of the Sharjah Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The Hoopoe was inserting his long bill into the grassy ground searching for food.

The Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of the Sharjah Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Al-Khan Lagoon, Sharjah, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 26.02.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/16682307341/

The Hoopoe (Upupa epops) is a colourful bird found across Afro-Eurasia, notable for its distinctive "crown" of feathers. It is the only extant species in the family Upupidae. One insular species, the Saint Helena hoopoe, is extinct, and the Madagascar subspecies of the hoopoe is sometimes elevated to a full species. Like the Latin name upupa, the English name is an onomatopoeic form which imitates the cry of the bird. The hoopoe is the national bird of Israel (Wikipedia).

Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa infront of the Sharjah Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Al-Khan Lagoon, Sharjah, UAE. Photo by my friend Moses Hanfer. 26.02.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/16658747766/

Taxonomy and Systematics

The hoopoe was classified in the clade Coraciiformes, which also includes kingfishers, bee-eaters, and rollers. A close relationship between the hoopoe and the woodhoopoes is also supported by the shared and unique nature of their stapes. In the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, the Hoopoe is separated from the Coraciiformes as a separate order, the Upupiformes. Some authorities place the woodhoopoes in the Upupiformes as well. Now the consenus is that both hoopoe and the wood hoopoes, along with the hornbills are placed in Bucerotiformes (Wikipedia).


The fossil record of the hoopoes is very incomplete, with the earliest fossil coming from the Quaternary. The fossil record of their relatives is older, with fossil wood hoopoes dating back to the Miocene and those of an extinct related family, the Messelirrisoridae, dating from the Eocene (Wikipedia).

It is the only extant member of its family, although some treatments consider some of the subspecies as separate species. Several authors have separated the Madagascan subspecies (U. e. marginata) as a separate species, and also the resident African form U. e. africana. The morphological differences between the most commonly split subspecies, U. e. marginata, and the other subspecies are minor, and only U. e. marginata has distinctly different vocalisations. One accepted separate species, the Saint Helena hoopoeU. antaios, lived on the island of St. Helena but became extinct in the 16th century, presumably due to introduced species (Wikipedia).


The genus Upupa was created by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758. It then included three other species with long curved bills:

The Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of the Sharjah Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Al-Khan Lagoon, Sharjah, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 26.02.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/16682996132/

Subspecies

Nine subspecies of hoopoe are recognised by Kristin (in the 2001 Handbook of the Birds of the World). They vary mostly in size and the depth of colour in the plumage. Two further subspecies have been proposed, U. e. minor in South Africa and U. e. orientalis in north western India (Wikipedia).

The Subspecies are: U. e. epops Linnaeus, 1758; U. e. major C.L. Brehm, 1855; U. e. senegalensis Swainson, 1913; U. e. waibeli Reichenow, 1913; U. e. Africana Bechstein, 1811; U. e. marginata Cabanis & Heine, 1860; U. e. saturate Lönnberg, 1909; U. e. ceylonensis Reichenbach, 1853 and U. e. longirostris Jerdon, 1862 (Wikipedia).

The Hoopoe (Upupa epops) الهدهد . Birds of U.A.E. Date of Issue : 25.09.1995. http://www.birdtheme.org/country/unitarab.html

Description

The hoopoe is a medium sized bird, 25–32 cm (9.8–12.6 in) long, with a 44–48 cm (17–19 in) wingspan. It weighs 46–89 g (1.6–3.1 oz). The species is highly distinctive, with a long, thin tapering bill that is black with a fawn base. The strengthened musculature of the head allows the bill to be opened when probing inside the soil. The hoopoe has broad and rounded wings capable of strong flight; these are larger in the northern migratory subspecies. The hoopoe has a characteristic undulating flight, which is like that of a giant butterfly, caused by the wings half closing at the end of each beat or short sequence of beats (Wikipedia).

The call is typically a trisyllabic oop-oop-oop, which may give rise to its English and scientific names, although two and four syllables are also common. An alternative explanation of the English and scientific names is that they are derived from the French name for the bird, "Huppée", which means crested. In the Himalayas, the calls can be confused with that of the Himalayan cuckoo (Cuculus saturatus), although the cuckoo typically produces four notes. Other calls include rasping croaks, when alarmed, and hisses. Females produce a wheezy note during courtship feeding by the male. Both genders, when disturbed, call a rough charrrrrr, strongly reminiscent of the warning cry of the Eurasian jay. The food begging call of the nestlings is similar to that of a common swifttiiii (Wikipedia).

The Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of the Sharjah Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Al-Khan Lagoon, Sharjah, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 26.02.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/16476798197/

Distribution and Habitat

The hoopoe is widespread in EuropeAsia, and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar. Most European and north Asian birds migrate to the tropics in winter. In contrast, the African populations are sedentary all year. The species has been a vagrant in Alaska; U. e. saturata was recorded there in 1975 in the Yukon Delta. Hoopoes have been known to breed north of their European range, and in southern England during warm, dry summers that provide plenty of grasshoppers and similar insects, although as of the early 1980s northern European populations were reported to be in the decline, possibly due to changes in climate (Wikipedia).


The hoopoe has two basic requirements of its habitat: bare or lightly vegetated ground on which to forage and vertical surfaces with cavities (such as trees, cliffs or even walls, nest boxes, haystacks, and abandoned burrows) in which to nest. These requirements can be provided in a wide range of ecosystems, and as a consequence the hoopoe inhabits a wide range of habitats such as heathland, wooded steppes, savannas and grasslands, as well as forest glades. The Madagascar subspecies also makes use of more dense primary forest. The modification of natural habitats by humans for various agricultural purposes has led to hoopoes becoming common in olive groves, orchards, vineyards, parkland and farmland, although they are less common and are declining in intensively farmed areas. Hunting is of concern in southern Europe and Asia (Wikipedia).


Hoopoes make seasonal movements in response to rain in some regions such as in Ceylon and in the Western Ghats. Birds have been seen at high altitudes during migration across the Himalayas. One was recorded at about 6,400 m (21,000 feet) by the first Mount Everest expedition (Wikipedia).

Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa infront of the Sharjah Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Al-Khan Lagoon, Sharjah, UAE. Photo by my friend Moses Hanfer. 26.02.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/16068240154/

Behaviour and Ecology

In what was long thought to be a defensive posture, hoopoes sunbathe by spreading out their wings and tail low against the ground and tilting their head up; they often fold their wings and preen halfway through. They also enjoy taking dust and sand baths (Wikipedia).

Hoopoe. Sharjah Stamp. Date of Issue: 20.02.1965. http://www.birdtheme.org/mainlyimages/index.php?code=260

Diet and Feeding

The diet of the hoopoe is mostly composed of insects, although small reptiles, frogs and plant matter such as seeds and berries are sometimes taken as well. It is a solitary forager which typically feeds on the ground. More rarely they will feed in the air, where their strong and rounded wings make them fast and maneuverable, in pursuit of numerous swarming insects. More commonly their foraging style is to stride over relatively open ground and periodically pause to probe the ground with the full length of their bill. Insect larvae, pupae and mole crickets are detected by the bill and either extracted or dug out with the strong feet. Hoopoes will also feed on insects on the surface, probe into piles of leaves, and even use the bill to lever large stones and flake off bark. Common diet items include cricketslocustsbeetlesearwigscicadasant lionsbugs and ants. These can range from 10 to 150 mm in length, with a preferred prey size of around 20–30 mm. Larger prey items are beaten against the ground or a preferred stone to kill them and remove indigestible body parts such as wings and legs (Wikipedia).

The Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of the Sharjah Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Al-Khan Lagoon, Sharjah, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 26.02.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/16498063139/

Breeding

Hoopoes are monogamous, although the pair bond apparently only lasts for a single season, and territorial. The male calls frequently to advertise his ownership of the territory. Chases and fights between rival males (and sometimes females) are common and can be brutal. Birds will try to stab rivals with their bills, and individuals are occasionally blinded in fights. The nest is in a hole in a tree or wall, and has a narrow entrance. It may be unlined, or various scraps may be collected. The female alone is responsible for incubating the eggs. Clutch size varies with location: northern hemisphere birds lay more eggs than those in the southern hemisphere, and birds at higher latitudes have larger clutches than those closer to the equator. In central and northern Europe and Asia the clutch size is around 12, whereas it is around four in the tropics and seven in the subtropics. The eggs are round and milky blue when laid, but quickly discolour in the increasingly dirty nest. They weigh 4.5 grams. A replacement clutch is possible (Wikipedia).

Hoopoe Painting. A Special Painting which was painted for this article by my friend the Biologist and Artist Raguib Ahmed from Dhaka, Bangladesh. 06.03.2015.

Hoopoes have well-developed anti-predator defences in the nest. The uropygial gland of the incubating and brooding female is quickly modified to produce a foul-smelling liquid, and the glands of nestlings do so as well. These secretions are rubbed into the plumage. The secretion, which smells like rotting meat, is thought to help deter predators, as well as deter parasites and possibly act as an antibacterial agent. The secretions stop soon before the young leave the nest. From the age of six days, nestlings can also direct streams of faeces at intruders, and will hiss at them in a snake-like fashion. The young also strike with their bill or with one wing (Wikipedia).


The incubation period for the species is between 15 and 18 days, during which time the male feeds the female. Incubation begins as soon as the first egg is laid, so the chicks are born asynchronously. The chicks hatch with a covering of downy feathers. By around day three to five, feather quills emerge which will become the adult feathers. The chicks are brooded by the female for between 9 to 14 days. The female later joins the male in the task of bringing food. The young fledge in 26 to 29 days and remain with the parents for about a week more (Wikipedia).

Hoopoe. Sharjah Stamp. Date of Issue: 20.02.1965. http://www.birdtheme.org/country/sharjah.html

Relationship with Humans

The diet of the hoopoe includes many species considered by humans to be pests, such as the pupae of the processionary moth, a damaging forest pest. For this reason the species is afforded protection under the law in many countries (Wikipedia).


Hoopoes are distinctive birds and have made a cultural impact over much of their range. They were considered sacred in Ancient Egypt, and were "depicted on the walls of tombs and temples". They achieved a similar standing in Minoan Crete (Wikipidia).


In the Bible, Leviticus 11:13–19, hoopoes were listed among the animals that are detestable and should not be eaten. They are also listed in Deuteronomy (14:18) as not kosher (Wikipedia).

The Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of the Sharjah Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Al-Khan Lagoon, Sharjah, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 26.02.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/16683372112/

Hoopoes also appear in the Holy Quran and is known as the "Hudhud", in Surah Al-Naml 27:20–22: “And he (Solomon) sought attendance among the birds and said: How is it that I see not the hoopoe, or is he among the absent? (20). I will surely punish him with a severe punishment or slaughter him unless he brings me clear authorization (21). But the hoopoe stayed not long and said, “I have encompassed [in knowledge] that which you have not encompassed, and I have come to you from Sheba with certain news (22).” Islamic literature also states that a hoopoe saved Moses and the children of Israel from being crushed by the giant Og after crossing the Red Sea (Wikipedia).


Hoopoes were seen as a symbol of virtue in Persia. A hoopoe was a leader of the birds in the Persian book of poems The Conference of the Birds ("Mantiq al-Tayr" by Attar) and when the birds seek a king, the hoopoe points out that the "Simurgh" was the king of the birds (Wikipedia).


Hoopoes were thought of as thieves across much of Europe, and harbingers of war in Scandinavia. In Estonian tradition, hoopoes are strongly connected with death and the underworld; their song is believed to foreshadow death for many people or cattle (Wikipedia).

Hoopoe at the Gaza Sea Shore near the Fishermen Port, Gaza, Palestine. Photo by my friend the Researcher Ayman Dardouna from Gaza, Palestine. 19.11.2014.

The hoopoe is the king of the birds in the Ancient Greek comedy The Birds by Aristophanes. In Ovid's Metamorphoses, book 6, King Tereus of Thracerapes Philomela, his wife Procne's sister, and cuts out her tongue. In revenge, Procne kills their son Itys and serves him as a stew to his father. When Tereus sees the boy's head, which is served on a platter, he grabs a sword but just as he attempts to kill the sisters, they are turned into birds—Procne into a swallow and Philomela into a nightingale. Tereus himself is turned into an epops (6.674), translated as lapwing by Dryden and lappewincke (lappewinge) by John Gower in his Confessio Amantis, or hoopoe in A.S. Kline's translation. The bird's crest indicates his royal status, and his long, sharp beak is a symbol of his violent nature. English translators and poets probably had the northern lapwing in mind, considering its crest (Wikipedia).

Hoopoe. Dubai Stamp. Date of Issue: 09.12.1968. http://www.birdtheme.org/country/dubai.html

The hoopoe was chosen as the national bird of Israel in May 2008 in conjunction with the country's 60th anniversary, following a national survey of 155,000 citizens, outpolling the white-spectacled bulbul. The hoopoe appears on the Logo of the University of Johannesburg and is the official mascot of the University's sports. The municipality of Armstedt, Germany, has a hoopoe in its coat of arms (Wikipedia).

The Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of the Sharjah Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Al-Khan Lagoon, Sharjah, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 26.02.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/16064523753/

Hoopoe in the UAE

Very common passage migrant; localised winter visitor and thinly distributed breeding resident (UAEinteract).

Hoopoe. Fujeira Stamp. Date of Issue: 14.10.1965. http://www.delcampe.co.uk/items?language=E&cat=16179

References and Internet Websites:

Ali, S. and Ripley, S. D. (1983). Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Volume 4 (2 ed.). Oxford University Press, New Delhi. pp. 124–129. 

Battisti, A; Bernardi, M. and Ghiraldo, C. (2000). Predation by the hoopoe (Upupa epops) on pupae of Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the likely influence on other natural enemies. Biocontrol 45 (3): 311–323. 

BirdLife International (2012). Upupa epopsIUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature

Campus Birds UAE. Hoopoe. Rebecca Baggaley. http://www.uaecb.net/ses-hoopoe/ 

Champion-Jones, R.N. (1937). The Ceylon Hoopoe (Upupa epops ceylonensis Reichb.). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 39 (2): 418. 

Dau, Christian; Paniyak, Jack (1977). Hoopoe, A First Record for North America. Auk 94(3): 601. 

Dupree, N (1974). An Interpretation of the Role of the Hoopoe in Afghan Folklore and Magic. Folklore 85 (3): 173–93. 

Erlichman, Erez (2008). Hoopoe Israel's new national bird. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3549637,00.html 

Feduccia, Alan (1975). The Bony Stapes in the Upupidae and Phoeniculidae: Evidence for Common Ancestry. The Wilson Bulletin 87 (3): 416–417. 

Fry, Hilary C. (2003). Christopher Perrins, ed. Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. p. 382. ISBN 1-55297-777-3.


Gulf Vantage. The Hip Hoopoe.
http://gulfvantage.com/2011/11/the-hip-hoopoe/ 
Hackett, Shannon J.; et al. (2008). A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their Evolutionary History. Science 320 (1763): 1763–1768. 
Harrison, C.J.O.; Christopher Perrins (1979). Birds: Their Ways, Their World. The Reader’s Digest Association. pp. 303–304. ISBN 0-89577-065-2
Heindel, Matthew T.; Jonathan Alderfer (ed.) (2006). Complete Birds of North America. National Geographic Society. p. 360. ISBN 0-7922-4175-4
Hoopoe. طائر الهُدهُد . http://www.halaluae.com/vb/archive/index.php/t-1123.html 
Houtsma, M. Th (1987). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 990. ISBN 9789004082656

The Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of the Sharjah Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Al-Khan Lagoon, Sharjah, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 26.02.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/16497143430/

Khalaf, Nora Norman Ali Bassam (Fotografin, 11 Jahre) (28 Juni 2010). Foto: Junger Strauß, Vogel und Tier Markt, Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/display/21915604 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie’t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali (1983). The Pine Bunting in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. First Year. Number 1. July 1983. pp. 10-13. Al Salimiah, State of Kuwait. (In Arabic). http://issuu.com/dr-normanalibassamkhalaf/docs/the_pine_bunting_in_palestine_gazel/1 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1984). The Palestine Bulbul. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Second Year. Number 5. May 1984. pp. 19-20. Hanweiler, Saarland, Federal Republic of Germany. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1984-1985). The Weasel Project: Scientific Research on captive weasels (Mustela nivalis, Linnaeus 1766) in the Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, England, during the Academic Year 1984-1985. Supervisor: Dr. Nigel Dunstone. Unpublished scientific research and data & scientific diary. Research Notebook. pp. 1-52. 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1985). The Arabian Ostrich. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom. Volume 3. Number 6. April 1985. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1986). A List of the Birds of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178-6288. Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom. Number 8. Fourth Year. January 1986 AD, Jamada Oula 1406 H. pp. 1-24. (In Arabic and English).

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1987). A Trip to Kuwait Zoo, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year, Number 13, Ramadan 1407 AH, April 1987 AD. pp. 1-5. (in Arabic).  

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). A Trip to Zoo Budapest, Hungary. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 21, Ninth Year, January 1991. pp. 1-4. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae'q Al-Nouma'n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Extinct and Endangered Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004 / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-014121-9. Erste Auflage, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten. Zweite erweiterte Auflage, August 2004: 460 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third Year, October 2005, Ramadan 1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA) (2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali (2005, 2006, 2007). Chapter 3: Geography, Flora and Fauna. Pages 32-39. In: Palestine: A Guide. By Mariam Shahin, Photography by George Azar. Co-Author: Norman Ali Khalaf. Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Publishing Group, 2005, 2006. xi + 471 pages. Appendices to page 500. http://ipsnewsite.mysite4now.com/journals.aspx?id=7323&jid=1&href=fulltext

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Palaestina. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/ 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Arabica. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin حيوانات فلسطين (The Animals of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%
AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86

Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa infront of the Sharjah Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Al-Khan Lagoon, Sharjah, UAE. Photo by my friend Moses Hanfer. 26.02.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/16498139639/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.  http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm 

Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Zoologist, Ecologist and Geologist: The Scientific References (1980-2009). http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). An ancient Arabian Ostrich (Struthio camelus syriacus) egg-shell from the Village of Qidfa, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 96, December 2009, Thu Al Hijja 1430 AH. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://arabian-ostrich.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). The Red-Necked Ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus Linnaeus, 1758) at Dubai Zoo, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 96, December 2009, Thu Al Hijja 1430 AH. pp. 26-28. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.  http://arabian-ostrich.webs.com/ostrichdubaizoo.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Photographer) (09 December 2009). Photo: Ancient Arabian Ostrich Egg Shell / Alte arabische Straußeneischale. Emirat Fujairah, V. A. Emirate. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/mypics/1213259/display/22065236 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Photographer) (15 December 2009). Photo: Ancient Arabian Ostrich Egg Shell, Qidfa Village, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/mypics/1213259/display/21831255 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Fotograf) (04 August 2010). Foto: Nordafrikanische Strauß, Dubai Zoo, Dubai, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/mypics/1213259/display/21993963 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2014). Fauna Palaestina – Part Four. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2014 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Vier. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2014. ISBN 978-9950-383-77-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2014, Ramadan 1435 H. pp. 456 (English part 378 pages and Arabic part 78 pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-part-1.webs.com/faunapalaestina4.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Animals living inside and around the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram) in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 116, August 2014, Shawal 1435 AH. pp. 1-23. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-makkah.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf Award for Biodiversity in Palestine 2012 / 2013 : Essay and Photography Contest of the Palestine Sunbird  (Cinnyris osea Bonaparte, 1856). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 124, April 2015. pp. 1-21. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/drnormanakhalafaward.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Plants and Animals unique to Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 125, May 2015. pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine-2.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The First Palestinian Wildlife Photography Exhibition in the Gaza Strip in November 2014. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 138, June 2016. pp. 1-35. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/gazawildlifephoto2014.htm 


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The Presence of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 139, July 2016. pp. 1-23. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-uae.webs.com/ 


Khalaf, Ola Mostafa (Fotografin) (27 July 2007). Foto: Strauß, Qaryet Al Asad (Löwe Dorf), Kairo-Alexandria Wüsten-Straße, Ägypten. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/extra/buddies/display/21947580 

Khalaf, Ola Mostafa (Fotografin) (02 August 2010). Foto: Afrikanische Straußeneier / African Ostrich Egg-shell. Souk Al Arsah, Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/extra/buddies/display/22032858

The Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of the Sharjah Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Al-Khan Lagoon, Sharjah, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 26.02.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/16064657313/

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Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii). pp. 117–118. 

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Martín-Platero, Antonio M. et al. (2006). Characterization of Antimicrobial Substances Produced by Enterococcus faecalis MRR 10-3, Isolated from the Uropygial Gland of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72 (6): 4245–4249. 

Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Palomino, José J. and Soler, Manuel (2004). Strophe Length in Spontaneous Songs Predicts Male Response to Playback in the Hoopoe Upupa epops. Ethology 110 (5): 351–362. 

Mayr, Gerald (2000). Tiny Hoopoe-Like Birds from the Middle Eocene of Messel (Germany). Auk 117 (4): 964–970. 

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Reichlin, Thomas; Michael Schaub, Myles H. M. Menz, Murielle Mermod, Patricia Portner, Raphaël Arlettaz & Lukas Jenni (2008). Migration patterns of Hoopoe Upupa epops and Wryneck Jynx torquilla: an analysis of European ring recoveries. Journal of Ornithology 150(2): 393. 

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