Clownfish

The Oman Clownfish (Amphiprion omanensis Allen & Mee, 1991) and the Sebae Clownfish (Amphiprion sebae Bleeker, 1853) from the Shark Island Coral Reefs in Khor Fakkan, East Coast of the United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean

سمك المُهرج العُماني و السبئي في الشعاب المُرجانية لجزيرة القرش في خورفكان ، الساحل الشرقي لدولة الإمارات العربية المُتحدة ، خليج عُمان

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf

Article Reference :  Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (2017). The Oman Clownfish (Amphiprion omanensis Allen & Mee, 1991) and the Sebae Clownfish (Amphiprion sebae Bleeker, 1853) from the Shark Island Coral Reefs in Khor Fakkan, East Coast of the United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 150, June 2017, pp. 1-29. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-uae.webs.com/clownfish

The Oman Clownfish (Amphiprion omanensis) hiding between the sea anemone at a depth of approximately 12 meter near the Shark Island in the Sea of Khor Fakkan, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. Photo by the diver Ola Mostafa Khalaf. 21.08.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/20905820272/

On Friday 21.08.2015, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, his wife the diver Ola Mostafa Khalaf and their daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf visited the East Coast of the United Arab Emirates and stayed at the Sandy Beach Hotel and Resort in Dibba, Fujairah, UAE.


The Dive Center at the Sandy Beach Hotel and Resort offers various diving trips on the East Coast of the United Arab Emirates. One of these diving trips was to the Shark Island in the Sea of Khor Fakkan.


My wife the diver Ola Mostafa Khalaf joined this diving trip, and saw many marine animals in the coral reefs. At a depth of approximately 12 meter she saw the Oman Clownfish (Amphiprion omanensis Allen & Mee, 1991) and the Sebae Clownfish (Amphiprion sebae Bleeker, 1853) swimming around the coral reef and hiding between the sea anemone.

The Oman Clownfish (Amphiprion omanensis) hiding between the sea anemone at a depth of approximately 12 meter near the Shark Island in the Sea of Khor Fakkan, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. Photo by the diver Ola Mostafa Khalaf. 21.08.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/50[email protected]/20404605504/

The Oman Anemonefish Amphiprion omanensis also called the Oman Clownfish, one of the largest clown species. It has a stout rounded body that will reach just over 6 inches in length (15.5 cm). Its body color can be orange to reddish brown with two very narrow vertical bars, one at the head and the other mid-body. There is a rare variation that has a bright brick red coloring on the body and tail fin, which is called the Brick Red Oman (Animal World).


This clownfish is one of the 11 species grouped in the Clarkii Complex. It was scientifically described as recently as 1991. The members of the Clarkii group are generally geographically widespread but this species is very localized with a small distribution. It is found in the Western Indian Ocean off the coast of Oman at the tip of the Arabian Peninsula, and just north of the Socotra (Sokotra) Island (Animal World).

Like the common Clark's Clownfish Amphiprion clarkii, this fish has a longer, forked tail that gives it the ability to swim quicker than other types of clowns. But this clownfish is a very distinctive because its caudal fin has a strongly forked lyre shape with filaments streaming from the ends of the tailfin's lobes. This fin is typically white while the pelvic and anal fins are always dark brown. This is one of only two clownfish with such a distinctly forked caudal fin. The other is the Madagascar Anemonefish Amphiprion latifasciatus, another very rare species that also lives in the Western Indian Ocean. The Madagascar Clownfish is found in the waters of Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, but it has a much broader mid-body stripe than the Oman Anemonefish (Animal World).

The Oman Clownfish (Amphiprion omanensis) hiding between the sea anemone at a depth of approximately 12 meter near the Shark Island in the Sea of Khor Fakkan, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. Photo by the diver Ola Mostafa Khalaf. 21.08.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/21036717375/

Distribution / Background


The Oman Anemonefish Amphiprion omanensis was described by Allen and Mee in 1991. This is one of the newest clownfish to be scientifically described. They have a small and limited distribution within the Western Indian Ocean, in the area of the Arabian Sea. They are found off the Arabian Peninsula, the typical locality is Barr Al Hikman, off the east coast of Oman, and they have also been found just north of the Socotra (Sokotra) Island. It is thought that they have a very short larval stage, contributing to this limited dispersal. They are not listed on the IUCN Red List (Animal World).


These clownfish are known by the common names Oman Anemonefish or Oman Clownfish, which have to do with their very limited habitat. There is also a rare variation with a bright brick red coloring on the body and tail fin which is called the Brick Red Oman. They are one of 11 clownfish in the Clarkii complex, which are all some of the best swimmers of all clownfish complexes (Animal World).


They occur in small aggregations on inshore reefs at shallower depths between 6 - 33 feet (2 - 10 m). They have been known to associate most commonly with the clown-hosting anemones Entacmaea quadricolorHeteractis crispa, and Heteractis magnifica, but may also possibly be hosted by the anemones Heteractis aurora and Stichodactyla mertensii. They are usually found as adult pairs. Juveniles can be found alone, or sharing an anemone with an adult pair. Anemonefish are opportunistic eaters, feeding on zoo plankton, benthic algae and weeds, small shrimp, amphipods, polychaete worms, and other small invertebrates (Animal World).


  • Scientific Name: Amphiprion omanensis Allen & Mee, 1991
  • Social Grouping: Varies - Typically found as adult pairs. Juveniles alone or with adults in same anemone.
  • IUCN Red List: NE - Not Evaluated or not listed (Animal World).

The Divers: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf (right), his wife Ola Mostafa Khalaf (centre) and daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf (left) in the Sea of Dibba-Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. 21.08.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/21164117561/

Description


The Oman Anemonefish is a deep bodied clownfish from the Clarkii Complex, but with a very distinct look. These fish typically have a stout, rounded body and a forked tail, which helps them to swim faster than other anemonefish that have rounded tails. But its distinctive tail fin has a strongly forked, lyre shape with filaments streaming from the ends of the tailfin's lobes. Females can grow to 6.1 inch (15.5 cm), and males are much smaller. Similar to others in the Clarkii complex, the Oman Anemonefish will probably live about 15 years in captivity (Animal World).


Adults have an orange to orangish brown, or reddish brown body with a head that is paler, almost tan. There are two vertical white bars on its sides, one located just behind the eye and the other mid-body. These bars are very narrow, which is quite distinct from other clownfish. On adults the bar at the head area usually does not reach across the nape, nor does it extend all the way down to the very bottom of the chin, as seen in other clownfish. The second stripe is narrower than the first and typically on adults it does not extend onto the belly area. At times large adults will simply lose the mid-body bar or there may only be a slight remnant of it near the dorsal fin. The tail fin is typically white while the pelvic and anal fins are always dark brown to black (Animal World).


Juveniles are light brown though yellow ventrally with two white bars on the sides. There is also one variation called the Brick Red Oman, which is a brick red coloring on the body and the tail fin is also brick red (Animal World).


  • Size of fish: 6.1 inches (15.49 cm).
  • Lifespan: 15 years - Longest recorded lifespan for Clarkii complex is 15 years in captivity. They have been reported to live 13 years in the wild (Animal World).

The Diver Ola Mostafa Khalaf diving near the Shark Island in the Sea of Khor Fakkan, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. 21.08.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/21131008626/

Feeding


The Oman Anemonefish are omnivores. In the wild the Amphiprion members eat zoo plankton, benthic algae and weeds, small shrimp, amphipods, polychaete worms, and other small invertebrates (Animal World).


It does not generally harm live corals or small inverts, but large adults may attack ornamental shrimps. They will also pick at the dead tentacles of their host anemone (Animal World).

Social Behaviour


Due to their aggression towards other clownfish species, the Oman Anemonefish shouldn't be housed with other types of clownfish in an Aquarium. While being attacked or in attacking mode, clownfish produces from 2 to 17 clicks in a row. They will at times produce "chirps" (aimed at larger fish) and "pops" (aimed at smaller fish) that are audible to divers or even aquarists. They are actually silent when mating. Pops are heard in sets of two or one, right before a chirp noise, so they may be carrying on two different conversations! Saying, "Get out of here Angelfish!" and "hey you subordinate, get in line!" (Animal World).

They use their teeth to produce the sound and the jaws are the built in amplifier, so it stands to reason that the noises may vary from clownfish species to species, sort of like a dialect or accent. There are a total of 29 clownfish that produce audible sounds, with some louder than others. Within the loudest three are the Clark's Clownfish, Tomato Clownfish, and Pink Skunk Clownfish (Animal World).

The behaviour between the same species of clownfish is very interesting and easy to identify. Constant dominating displays by a female prevent a male from changing sex. An aggressive clownfish will displays "agonistic behavior" while the subordinate clown will display “appeaser behavior.” The aggressive fish has specific actions in which the subordinate clownfish reacts to:


    • If the aggressive fish, typically the female, is chasing and chirping, the subordinate clownfish, which can be a male or sub adult, will rapidly quiver their body as they drift upward and they will produce clicking sounds.
    • Jaw popping by the aggressive clownfish results in the subordinate clownfish shaking their body or head.
    • Ventral leaning by the aggressive clownfish results in the subordinate clownfish quivering.
    • An aggressive clownfish displaying a dorsal leaning results in the subordinate clownfish performing ventral leaning (Animal World).
       

The relationship a clown fish and a sea anemone have is known as symbiosis, where they provide benefits to one another. Clownfish stay with certain anemones in the wild, protecting them from anemone eating fish. In return the anemone protects the clownfish from predators, keeping them away with their stinging tentacles. Clownfish become immune to the sting of the anemone's tentacles. Feeding is another benefit; the clownfish gets to snack on the remnants of any meal the anemone has captured. The clownfish will also perform housekeeping duties by removing pieces of detritus picked up from the substrate. It is also thought that the anemone is nourished by the waste of the clownfish (Animal World).

Host anemones the Oman Clownfish is known to associated with:


They may also associate with these clown-hosting anemones:


Be cautious adding Condy Anemones Condylactis gigantea. These are very mobile, predatory anemones, and are not a “clown hosting anemone”. Their sting is much stronger than clown hosting anemones, and there is a risk to the clownfish who is foolish enough to engage it may eventually be eaten. Many who have had clowns hosted by Condylactis have said, “one day the clownfish was gone, and I kept the anemone well fed!” (Animal World).

The Diver Ola Mostafa Khalaf diving near the Shark Island in the Sea of Khor Fakkan, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. 21.08.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/20973819948/

Sex: Sexual differences


The female is usually much larger than the male (Animal World).


Breeding and Reproduction


Though many clown fish species are now being captive bred, the Oman Anemonefish has not yet been reported to have been bred in captivity. No record for aquaculture at any laboratory is known. Similar to others in the Clarkii complex, they will spawn when the water temperature is 74° or higher. Although they will spawn between 72° - 88° F (26° - 28° C), it has been demonstrated that the best quality eggs and larvae happens when the temperature is 79° - 83° F (26° - 28° C) (Animal World).


Three to five days before spawning, courtship begins when the female spurs the male into biting at the substrate in increasing frequency and intensity as the big day draws closer. During this time the female belly swells with eggs. Clownfish displays performed during courting include leaning away from each other so their ventral surfaces are close, leaning towards each other with their dorsal surfaces close while shaking their heads, and/or one or both will engage in head standing (Animal World).


Once the pair has decided on a spawning site, they will meticulously and neurotically clean the surface for proper egg adhesion. The area is generally close to the anemone, which provides the protection of its tentacles. Just before spawning, the clown fish pair will pick at the anemone to cause it to retract, exposing the full spawning site. The female presses her belly against the surface, quivers and drags herself along the surface, leaving a trail of eggs and will continue this in a circular pattern until she has laid all of her eggs. The male will then come up behind her and fertilize the eggs (Animal World).

Spawning occurs late morning to early afternoon and can last up to two and half hours with the clutch of eggs numbering on average between 100 to 2500, depending on the size of the female. The eggs are fanned and mouthed to keep them free of fungal infections, debris, and to keep them well oxygenated as they develop. Within 6 to 13 days, depending on water temperature, these 2.2 to 4.4 mm long, orange eggs will hatch 1 to 1.5 hours after sunset. Interestingly, the Oman Anemonefish will all hatch within two hours. The larvae swim into the water column and enter the planktonic stage is typically shorter for this species than for most clownfish species. It is thought that the Oman Anemonefish has a short larval stage due to its limited distribution. This means it may be closer to only 6 to 8 days, although more research needs to be done (Animal World).

The Sebae Clownfish (Amphiprion sebae Bleeker, 1853) at a depth of approximately 12 meter near the Shark Island in the Sea of Khor Fakkan, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. Photo by the diver Ola Mostafa Khalaf. 21.08.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/20973848900/

The Sebae Clownfish Amphiprion sebae is what comes to mind when thinking of anemonefish, though it is actually a rarer species to encounter. Possibly it is well known because of the combination of people's familiarity with the Sebae Anemone Heteractis crispa, and its being an anemonefish. Oddly, the Sebae Clowns are never found with the Sebae Anemone in the wild. It is typically only found with the Haddon’s Carpet or Saddle Anemone Stichodactyla haddoni (Animal World).

This is one of the most often misidentified clownfish. It is often incorrectly labeled as a Clarkii Clownfish Amphiprion clarkii because they have a similar color pattern. However the Sebae has an elongated, more slender body. Its color can be distinguished by its second white band tipping towards the back on top and extending onto the dorsal fin, and also by its yellow anal fin. True Sebae Clownfish are not as easy to come by, nor are they as durable as a Clark’s Clownfish, and they are much more skittish (Animal World).


The Sebae Clownfish belongs to a small group of anemonefish known as the "Saddleback Complex". It is the largest member of this group, reaching 5.5 inch (14 cm). They typically have a black to dark brown body with two broad white bars, and a yellow-orange coloring on the face, bottom fins, and tail fin. There is also a melanistic form that is all black except for the white bars, it only has orange in the tail fin, and it has a gray nose. There are also designer variations that have been developed in captivity. It is also known as the Brown Clownfish, Yellowtail Clownfish, Sebae Anemonefish, and Seba's Anemonefish. Designer specimens are called Picasso Sebae Clownfish, Platinum Sebae Clownfish and White Tip Clownfish to describe the coloring of the fish (Animal World).

The Sebae Clownfish (Amphiprion sebae Bleeker, 1853) at a depth of approximately 12 meter near the Shark Island in the Sea of Khor Fakkan, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. Photo by the diver Ola Mostafa Khalaf. 21.08.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/20539823074/

Habitat: Distribution and Background


The Sebae Anemonefish Amphiprion sebae was described by Bleeker in 1853. They are found in the Indian Ocean from the Arabian Peninsula then east to Java, and north to Sri Lanka and India, then back down south to the Maldives Islands. This species is not listed on the IUCN Red List (Animal World).


Common names they are known by are the Sebae Clownfish, Brown Clownfish, Yellowtail Clownfish, and Sebae Anemonefish. Captive breed specimens have the designer names of Picasso Sebae Clownfish, Platinum Sebae Clownfish and White Tip Clownfish to describe the coloring of the fish, all dubbed names by the breeders (Animal World).


This clownfish is a member of small group of three anemonefish known as the "Saddleback Complex". This complex has only three member species. They are somewhat larger and more slender in shape than most other clownfish. They have predominantly a brown or black base coloration with highlights of yellow and orange. They are marked with white bars that often appear as saddles across their backs. The namesake for this group is the Saddleback Clownfish Amphiprion polymnus, and the third member is the Wide Band Clownfish Amphiprion latezonatus, also known as the Lord Howe Anemonefish (Animal World).


In the wild, the Sebae Clownfish inhabit waters that are coastal, as well as lagoons. They are found at depths between 7 to 114 feet (2 to 35 m). The foods they ingest in the wild are detritus, benthic plants, weeds and zooplankton. They are found with the Saddle Anemone Stichtodactyla haddoni host, and in small groups with adults and juveniles on the same anemone.


  • Scientific Name: Amphiprion sebae Bleeker, 1853
  • Social Grouping: Varies - They are found singly, or as a male/female pair with or without 1 or more juveniles.
  • IUCN Red List: NE - Not Evaluated or not listed (Animal World).

The Sebae Clownfish (Amphiprion sebae Bleeker, 1853) at a depth of approximately 12 meter near the Shark Island in the Sea of Khor Fakkan, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. Photo by the diver Ola Mostafa Khalaf. 21.08.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/21152297092/

Description


The Sebae Clownfish are elongated, slender bodied clownfish from the Saddleback Complex, in contrast to the deeper bodied shape of those in the Clarkii Complex. This species is the largest in its complex, reaching 5.5 inch (14 cm) in length. They can have a lifespan of up to at least 12 years, and possible longer (Animal World).


Sebae Anemonefish typically have a black to dark brown body with two broad white bars, and a yellow-orange coloring on the face, bottom fins, and tail fin. They typically never have white outlining the tail fin or have any white at the base of the tail fin. There is also a melanistic form that is all black except for the white bars, the yellow tail, and a gray nose. The base of their tail fin and the entire tail fin is always yellow-orange, except with “designer” colorings in captive bred specimens. In various natural color phases, the following can occur:

  • The dark brown coloring extends from the top of the fish to at least 2/3rd to 3/4ths downward and they have a yellow-orange belly and nose. Only the dorsal fins are dark brown with the second dorsal fin having white at the top edge. The other fins are yellow-orange.
  • The black color phase comes from Bali and only has an orange in the tail fin, and a light gray nose.
  • The mostly dark brown color phase is the same as the black except the pelvic fins, nose and tail fin are yellow-orange (Animal World).


This fish is sometimes mistaken for the Clarkii Clownfish Amphiprion clarkii as they have a similar color pattern, though the Clark's anemonefish has a deeper body. The Sebae can be distinguished by its second white band tipping towards the back of the fish along the top and extending onto the dorsal fin, and also by its yellow anal fin (Animal World).


The Sebae Clownfish can also be confused with the Saddleback Clownfish. To tell the difference between the two, the Sebae always will have a bright yellow-orange tail fin in all its color phases, and unlike the Saddleback, the tail fin is never outlined in white.

The Sebae Clownfish (Amphiprion sebae Bleeker, 1853) at a depth of approximately 12 meter near the Shark Island in the Sea of Khor Fakkan, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. Photo by the diver Ola Mostafa Khalaf. 21.08.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/21152323172/

These fish have been bred in captivity producing the following strains and hybrids, coming from Bali Aquarich:

  • Picasso True Sebae Clownfish: 
    These color morphs are dark brown to black with gray to yellow noses and tail fins. Sometimes the tail fins may have a black spot of various sizes. There are variations on the amount of yellow in the other fins. They have the two stripes, which are irregular and typically have white spots as well.
  • White Tip Clownfish: 
    This fish is a fertile hybrid between the Sebae Clownfish Amphiprion sebae and the Saddleback Clownfish Amphiprion polymnus. Although no pictures have been seen yet, it would be hard to distinguish these without counting spines and rays on all the fins (Animal World).

  • Size of fish: 5.5 inches (13.97 cm)
  • Lifespan: 12 years - Their lifespan is at least 12 years, they could live longer with excellent care (Animal World).

The Diver Ola Mostafa Khalaf diving near the Shark Island in the Sea of Khor Fakkan, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. 21.08.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/20990285368/

Feeding


The Sebae Clownfish is omnivores. In the wild, they feed on benthic plants and weeds as well as zooplankton and detritus (Animal World).


Social Behaviour


The Sebae Clownfish is considered “semi-aggressive”. However from a “clownfish aggression” scale of 1 to 10 with 10 being most aggressive, this species is about a 2 or 3. This aggression number typically changes to 4 or 5 when an anemone and or eggs are present (Animal World).

There are about 29 species of clownfish known for their “singing” which consists of chirps and pops made with their teeth and amplified with their jaws! They use various combinations when they are being attacked or are attacking. The loudest three are the Clark's Clownfish, Tomato Clownfish, and Pink Skunk Clownfish (Animal World).

The behaviors between the same species of clownfish are very interesting and easy to identify. Constant dominating displays by a female prevent a male from changing sex. An aggressive clownfish will displays "agonistic behavior" while the subordinate clown will display “appeaser behavior.” The aggressive fish has specific actions in which the subordinate clownfish reacts to:


    • If the aggressive fish, typically the female, is chasing and chirping, the subordinate clownfish, which can be a male or sub adult, will rapidly quiver their body as they drift upward and they will produce clicking sounds.
    • Jaw popping by the aggressive clownfish results in the subordinate clownfish shaking their body or head.
    • Ventral leaning by the aggressive clownfish results in the subordinate clownfish quivering.
    • An aggressive clownfish displaying a dorsal leaning results in the subordinate clownfish performing ventral leaning (Animal World).

Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa in the Sea of Dibba-Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. 21.08.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/21059840040/

Sex: Sexual differences


Females are larger than the males (Animal World).


Breeding and Reproduction


The Sebae Clownfish, though a more difficult fish to maintain, has been bred in captivity and the fry successfully reared. All clownfish are undifferentiated when born but they are sex switchers. With certain social cues they change into juvenile males, and then when the opportunity arises a dominant fish will become female. To obtain a pair, get two different sizes and the larger will assume the female role and the smaller will be male. Clownfish do not spawn their entire lives, and will stop spawning several years before their live expectancy is over (Animal World).


Sebae Clownfish spawns when the water is 79°F to 83°F (26°C to 28°C). It is necessary to condition them with nutritious foods to fatten them up when breeding in captivity. From 3 to 5 days before spawning the female’s belly starts to swell with eggs. As the male and female get close to spawning, since they are host an anemone that needs to be buried in the sand, they have to drag coconut shells or rocks close to the anemone. They then vigorously clean whatever they surface they decided to use for optimal egg adhesion (Animal World).

When the female is ready to spawn, she presses her belly against the nesting site and the male swims behind her, fertilizing the eggs. Spawning, which may be similar to the Saddleback clownfish should occur late morning to early afternoon and can last up to 2 1/2 hours. A clutch of Sebae Clownfish eggs number around 300 to 600 eggs, depending on the size of the female. In the wild, 70% of these orange eggs will hatch on the 6th or 7th day. This usually occurs at night from 1 to 1 1/2 hours after sunset, and all will hatch within two hours, with the larvae ascending into the water column (Animal World).


Within 8 to 16 days, the larvae in the wild who survive not being eaten or in captivity survive fungus or other maladies, become free swimming young clown fish. Then the search for their anemone for protection begins. Two forms of recognition of the host anemone occur when these fish are still growing in their eggs. One is a scent that the particular anemone emits that they have been laid by, and/or the visual recognition of their parents swimming within the tentacles (Animal World).

The Divers: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa (left), his wife Ola Mostafa Khalaf (centre) and daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf (right) in the Sea of Dibba-Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. 21.08.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/21221804806/

References and Internet Websites


Animal World. Oman Anemonefish.
http://animal-world.com/encyclo/marine/clowns/OmanAnemonefish.php 
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie’t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (In Arabic).
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1981). Fawa'ed Alasmak. (The Benefits of Fishes). Al-Biology Magazine, Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. Number 1. Sunday 7.6.1981, 5. Sha'ban 1401. pp. 54-55. (In Arabic).
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1982). Samak Al-Coelacanth (The Coelacanth Fish). Al-Biology Magazine. Number 2. February 1982. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 14-15. (In Arabic). http://issuu.com/dr-normanalibassamkhalaf/docs/coelacanth_fish_al_biology_magazine
Khalaf, Norman (Translator) (1982). Al-Miah Al-Mulawatha Tohaded Al-Asmak Bi’ilinqiraad (Water Pollution threatens the Fish Fauna with Extinction). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 18, Third Year, First Semester, Saturday 6.11.1982. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 7. (Translation from German into Arabic).
Khalaf, Norman Ali (1983). Al-Samaka Al-‘Auljumiyah Al-Naqaqa fi Al-Khaleej Al-Arabi [The Toad Fish (Batrachus grunniens) in the Arabian Gulf]. Bulletin of the Biological Studies Club, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year, Number 3, 23 November 1983. pp. 10-11. (In Arabic).
Khalaf, Norman Ali (Translator) (1983). Al-Tasjeel Al-Hay Al-Awal li-Samaket Kozat Al-Snobar (Monocentris japonicus, Houttuyn) min Al-Bahr Al-Ahmar [The Pinecone Fish (Monocentris japonicus, Houttuyn), A First Live Record from the Red Sea] by: Chaim Kropach. Bulletin of the Biological Studies Club, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year, Number 4, 7.12.1983. pp. 6-8. (In Arabic).
Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1986). The Schooling of Fishes. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 9. Fourth Year. Ramadan 1406. May 1986. Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom. pp. 1-13.
Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1986). The Fish Fauna in Van Mildert Pond, Durham City, North East England. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 9. Fourth Year. Ramadan 1406. May 1986. Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom. pp. 14-20.
Khalaf, N.A.B. (1986). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). Dissertation, Master of Science in Ecology, Departments of Zoology and Botany, University of Durham, England. September 1986. pps. 59 + iv.
Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1987). The Coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) in the Science and Natural History Museum, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 15. Fifth Year. July 1987. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Germany. pp. 1-8. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/coelacanthkuwait.htm
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1987). On a Collection of Devon Period Animal Fossils from the Saarland, in the Geologische Museum Saarberg in Saarbrücken, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 15, Fifth Year, Thul Qi’dah 1407 AH, July 1987 AD. pp. 9-10.
Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1987). The Great White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) from the State of Kuwait, Arabian Gulf. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 16. Fifth Year. Safar 1408 AH. September 1987 AD. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. pp. 1-7.
Khalaf, Norman Ali (1989). Qa’ema li-ba’d Asmak Al-Kuwait fi Al-Mathaf Al-‘Ilmi Bi-Dawlat Al-Kuwait (A List of some Kuwaiti Fishes from the Science & Natural History Museum, State of Kuwait). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 19. Seventh Year. December 1989. Bonn 2-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. pp. 3. (In Arabic and English).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). A Trip to Zoo Budapest, Hungary. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 21, Ninth Year, January 1991. pp. 1-4.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). The Gulf War and its effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part One). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 23, Ninth Year, July 1991. pp. 1-12.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). The Gulf War and its effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part Two). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 24, Ninth Year, August 1991. pp. 1-10.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). The Gulf War and its effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part Three). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 25, Ninth Year, September 1991. pp. 1-7.
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). Notes on the Biological Ecology of the Marshes in Southern Iraq. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 29, Tenth Year, September 1992. pp. 1-9. (In Arabic).
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). The United Nations Ecological Report confirms: The Regime of Saddam is destroying the Marshes (Al-Ahwar) Ecosystem. Sawt Al-Kuwait International Newspaper. Saturday 17 October 1992, 21 Rabi’e Al-Thani 1412. pp. 15. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali B. (1993). Al-Mushkilatan Al-Ma’eyah wa Al-Bi’eyah fi Al-Dafah Al-Gharbiyah wa Qita’ Ghaza Al-Muhtalain (Ka-Juzu’ min Al-Sharq Al-Awsat) [The Water and the Ecological Problems in the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip (As Part of the Middle East)]. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 31. Eleventh Year. December 1993. Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany. pp. 1- 29. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae’q Al-Nouma’n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (In Arabic).
Acquaintance Card: Majallet Al-Ghazzal (Gazelle Magazine): The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn, Germany. Shqae’q Al-Nouma’n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 51-52. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali B.(1995). Alasmak fi Filistin (Die Fische von Palästina / The Fishes of Palestine). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 33. Thirteenth Year. December 1995. Bonn, Germany. pp.1-35. (In Arabic).

An Aquarium Clownfish at Swiss-Belhotel Corniche in Abu Dhabi, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa .. 09.09.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/20790302773/ 

Khalaf, Ali Bassam (1997). Amir Al-Bahar Al-Arabi (The Arabian Sea Prince) Shihab Al-Deen Ahmad Bin Majed. Magazin der Akademie. Nummer 1. Zu Elke’da 1417 H, Maerz 1997. König Fahad Akademie – Bonn, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Deutschland. pp. 23-24. (in Arabic).
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Extinct and Endangered Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit Juni 2001). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Wale und Delphine. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Wale_und_Delphine/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten / Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition), August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Der Komoren-Quastenflosser (Latimeria chalumnae) und der Manado-Quastenflosser (Latimeria menadoensis). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 38. Twenty Third Year. February 2005. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 1-8. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Story of Prophet Musa (Moses) and the Fish. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February 2005. pp. 14-15.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Moses Perch (Lutjanus russelli, Bleeker 1849). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February 2005. pp. 15.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Fish of Musa (Samak Musa). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February 2005. pp. 16.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Samak Al-Luchs (Al-Hamoor) or the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in Palestine (Mediterranean Sea) and the United Arab Emirates (Arabian Gulf). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 1-6.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Jaffa (Yaffa): The History of an Old Palestinian Arab City on the Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 7-8.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Andromeda Sea Monster of Jaffa. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 8.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Jewfish (Epinephelus itajara) / Der Riesenzackenbarsch oder Judenfisch (Epinephelus itajara). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 9-12.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Arabian Freshwater Fishes in the Arabia’s Wildlife Centre, Sharjah Desert Park, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 40, Twenty-third Year, April 2005. pp. 1-9. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://emirati-blind-cave-fish.webs.com/arabianfreshwaterfish.htm
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (Gründer) (seit Juni 2005). Der Quastenflosser: Coelacanth Latimeria Yahoo! Deutschland Group. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Quastenflosser/
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Koran Angelfish (Pomacanthus semicirculatus, Cuvier, 1831). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 44. Twenty-third Year. August 2005. Jamada Alakhira 1426. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 1-8. http://koran-angelfish.webs.com/
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980 - 2005. ISBN 3-00-014835-3. Erste Auflage / First Edition, August 2005: 376 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm
Khalaf, N.A.B. (2005). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). [M.Sc. Dissertation in Ecology, Departments of Zoology and Botany, University of Durham, England. September 1986. pps. 59 + iv]. In: Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005. Erste Auflage, August 2005. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 28-93.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third Year, October 2005, Ramadan 1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA) (2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).

The Clownfish Painting. A Special Painting which was painted for this article by my friend the Biologist and Artist Raguib Uddin Ahmed from Dhaka, Bangladesh. 14.09.2015 … According to Ahmed, two clownfish species lives in the Bay of Bengal: The Orange and the Brown Clownfish. They are very rare. As no body dive there at deep sea bottom in a depth of 50-70 feet with coral reef and scattered anemone. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/20818052173/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Ein Besuch im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland / A Visit to Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 59, November 2006. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabisch / Arabic). http://khalaf.homepage24.de/text_88839638_85658724_59480041_deutsch.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Palaestina. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit August 2007). Haie – Sharks Yahoo! Deutschland Group. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Haie_Sharks/
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Arabica. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin حيوانات فلسطين (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth Year, September 2007 CE, Sha’ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) caught off the Kuwaiti Coast: The Second Record from the State of Kuwait, Arabian / Persian Gulf. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/whalesharkinkuwait.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Rhiniodon typus Smith, 1828 or Rhincodon typus Smith, 1829: The Story of a Scientific Name. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 21. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://whale-shark.webs.com/rhiniodontypus.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) rescued near the Tantura Beach, Carmel Coast, North Palestine: The First Record from the Palestinian Mediterranean Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 22-23. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: Whale Sharks (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) near Um Al-Rashrash (Eilat) Beach, Gulf of Aqaba, South Palestine: First Records from the Palestinian Red Sea Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 23-26. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstract in English and Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). An Ocean Sunfish or Common Mola (Mola mola, Linnaeus 1758) caught off the coast of Gaza: The First Record from Palestine, East Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 72, December 2007, pp. 1-16. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Fauna_Palaestina/conversations/messages/37 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Cetacea Palaestina: The Whales and Dolphins in Palestinian Waters. Cetacean Species Guide for Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 83, November 2008, Thu Al-Qi’ada 1429 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://cetacea-palaestina.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). A Longcomb Sawfish (Pristis zijsron Bleeker, 1851) caught off the coast of Dibba, United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 88, April 2009, Rabi’e Al Thani 1430 AH. pp. 1-14. http://dibba-sawfish.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr.Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009 : A New Blind Cave Fish Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 90, June 2009, Jumada Al-Akhera 1430 AH. pp. 1-15. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://emirati-blind-cave-fish.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Oreochromis mossambicus bassamkhalafi Khalaf, 2009 : A New Mozambique Tilapia Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 92, August 2009, Sha’ban 1430 AH. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://emirati-tilapia.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Bowmouth Guitarfish (Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider, 1801) at Sharjah Aquarium, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 93, September 2009, Ramadan 1430 AH. pp. 1-18. http://bowmouth-guitarfish-emirates.webs.com/bowmouthguitarfishuae.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) Records from the United Arab Emirates between 1989 - 2009. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 94, October 2009, Shawal 1430 AH. pp. 1-28. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
http://whale-shark.webs.com/whalesharkinemirates.htm 

Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Zoologist, Ecologist and Geologist : The Scientific References (1980-2009). http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm

The Diver Ola Mostafa Khalaf diving near the Shark Island in the Sea of Khor Fakkan, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. 21.08.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/21256161871/

Khalaf, Dr. Norman Ali (Zoologist) (2011). A note on the Coelacanth of Kuwait. Readers’ Letters, National Geographic Al Arabiya Magazine. April 2011, Volume 2, Number 7, pp. 8. (In Arabic). http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/10122383976/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013: A New Freshwater Doctor Fish Subspecies from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 103, July 2013, Ramadan 1434 AH. pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/palestine-doctor-fish 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Taxon Profile: Subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013. BioLib.cz. Biological Library. http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1059609/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Palestine Doctor Fish (Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013). EOL. Encyclopedia of Life. http://eol.org/collections/80813 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Freshwater Fishes in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 104, August 2013, Shawal 1434 AH. pp. 1-17. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). † Coelacanthus sharjah Khalaf, 2013 : A New Coelacanth Fish Fossil Species from Sharjah Natural History and Botanical Museum, Sharjah, Emirate of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 106, October 2013, Thu Al Hijja 1434 AH. pp. 18–38. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/coelacanthussharjah.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Taxon Profile: Species Sharjah Coelacanth Coelacanthus sharjah Khalaf, 2013. BioLib. Biological Library. http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1068520/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Sharjah Coelacanth († Coelacanthus sharjah Khalaf, 2013). EOL. Encyclopedia of Life. http://eol.org/collections/95987/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). † Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013 : A New Coelacanth Fish Fossil Species from the Anthracothere Hill in Al-Naqab, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 107, November 2013, Muharram 1435 AH. pp. 30-38. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/macropomoidespalaestina.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Taxon Profile: Species Palestine Coelacanth Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013 †. BioLib. Biological Library. http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1075889/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Palestine Coelacanth († Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013). EOL. Encyclopedia of Life. http://eol.org/collections/97239 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). A Coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) Model at the Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig in Bonn, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 111, March 2014, Jumada Al Oula 1435 AH. pp. 1–9. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/coelacanthmuseumkoenig.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) at the Educational Science Museum, Kuwait City, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 112, April 2014, Jumada Al Akhera 1435 AH. pp. 1–10. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/coelacanthkuwait2013.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). Facebook. Biodiversity Arabia. Arabian Killifish. 19.04.2014. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152317046064831&set=p.10152317046064831&type=1&pnref=story 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2014). Fauna Palaestina – Part Four. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2014 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Vier. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2014. ISBN 978-9950-383-77-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2014, Ramadan 1435 H. 456 Pages (English Part 378 Pages and the Arabic Part 78 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-part-1.webs.com/faunapalaestina4.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Plants and Animals unique to Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 125, May 2015. pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine-2.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2015). Fauna Palaestina – Part Five. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2016 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Fünf. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2016. ISBN 978-9950-383-92-0. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2015, Ramadan 1436 H. 448 pp. (English Part 304 Pages and the Arabic Part 144 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-books.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). A Fish Fossil at the Notre Dame de Sion Ecce Homo Convent - Antonia Fortress, Old City, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178 – 6288). Number 132, December 2015. pp. 1-15. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/fish-fossil-notre-dame-sion 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The Arabian Killifish (Aphanius dispar Rüppel, 1829). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178 – 6288). Number 137, May 2016. pp. 1-10. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/arabian-killifish

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The First Palestinian Wildlife Photography Exhibition in the Gaza Strip in November 2014. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 138, June 2016. pp. 1-35. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/gazawildlifephoto2014.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). Haywanat Falastin (Fauna of Palestine) حيوانات فلسطين . Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 144, December 2016, pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (In Arabic). http://animals-of-palestine-2.webs.com/fauna-of-palestine-arabic 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (2017). Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758) Nest Adoption at the Reef Dive Resort, Mataking Island, State of Sabah, Federation of Malaysia in 2015. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 149, May 2017, pp. 1-30. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.sea-turtles-1.webs.com 


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (2017). The Oman Clownfish (Amphiprion omanensis Allen & Mee, 1991) and the Sebae Clownfish (Amphiprion sebae Bleeker, 1853) from the Shark Island Coral Reefs in Khor Fakkan, East Coast of the United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 150, June 2017, pp. 1-29. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-uae.webs.com/clownfish 


Marine biodiversity Database of India. Amphiprion sebae Bleeker, 1853 (Fish). http://www.biosearch.in/publicOrganismPage.php?id=2282 

Reef Builders. Oman Clownfish can make epic Journeys. http://reefbuilders.com/2014/09/18/oman-clownfish-epic-journey/ 

Sustainable Aquatics. Sultanate of Oman. http://sustainableaquatics.com/sultanate-of-oman/ 

The Guardian. Young ‘Nemo’ clownfish roam further than thought, study shows. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/sep/18/nemo-clownfish-roam-400k-australia 

The Omani Clownfish, Amphiprion omanensis, is endemic to the southern coast of Oman. Figshare. http://figshare.com/articles/_The_Omani_clownfish_Amphiprion_omanensis_is_endemic_to_the_southern_coast_of_Oman_/1173078 

Wikipedia. Khor Fakkan. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khor_Fakkan 

Wikipedia. Orange Clownfish. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orange_clownfish 

Wikipedia. Sebae Clownfish. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sebae_clownfish