Greater Flamingo

Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus Pallas, 1811) at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, United Arab Emirates

By:  Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa &
Nora Norman Ali Khalaf (Photography)  

Article Reference:  Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher & Nora Norman Ali Khalaf (Photography) (2017). Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus Pallas, 1811) at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 146, February 2017. pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-uae.webs.com/greater-flamingo

A Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus Pallas, 1811) at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, UAE. Photo by my precious daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/18979505295/

On Saturday 13th June 2015, I visited Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, accompanied with my beloved daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. We observed and photographed many bird species.

Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary sign in Dubai, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf-von Jaffa. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/18954259156/

Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary


Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary, (Arabic: رأس الخور‎) in DubaiUnited Arab Emirates, is a wetland reserve renowned for attracting migratory birds in large numbers. The wetlands have large numbers of birds, crustaceans, small mammals and fish (Wikipedia).


Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary is managed by the Marine Environment and Wildlife Section at the Environment Department, Dubai Municipality, Government of Dubai, and is officially a Ramsar site, which is under the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat, since 2007.


Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary represents an enclave of relative wilderness amidst swirling traffic and sprawling urban infrastructure. Located just as the name in Arabic suggests - at the “Cape of the Creek”, it is among the few urban protected areas of the world (Wikipedia).

The Dubai Municipality has taken great efforts to protect and preserve the biodiversity of this delicate ecosystem. The wetland has been fenced off from the public and two accessible birding hides (platforms) have been built. The bird hides are a first step towards development of more elaborate visitor education facilities in the protected area. WWF UAE Project Office collaborated with Dubai Municipality's Environment Department, in setting up the facilities that were sponsored by the National Bank of Dubai (Wikipedia).

Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary Rules and Regulations sign in Dubai, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf-von Jaffa. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/18472070784/

Opportunities for experiencing a natural environment in this rapidly building-up emirate are so limited that the opening of Ras Al Khor to visitors is a boon to present and potential nature lovers (Wikipedia).


Presently there are two birding hides located on the perimeter of the sanctuary open to the public. Entrance is free and operates from 7:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Saturday to Thursday.


Ras Al Khor is also home to about 500 Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus), which has become something of a mascot for Dubai's Wild Life protection program (Wikipedia).

Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa and his precious daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf observing the birds at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, UAE. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/18474305243/

Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus Pallas, 1811)


The Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) is the most widespread species of the flamingo family. It is found in parts of Africa, southern Asia (Bangladesh and coastal regions of Pakistan and India), and Palestine, and southern Europe (including Spain, Albania, Turkey, Greece, Cyprus, Portugal, Italy and the Camargue region of France). Some populations are short distance migrants, and sightings north of the breeding range are relatively frequent; however, given the species' popularity in captivity, whether or not these are truly wild individuals is a matter of some debate. A single bird was seen on North Keeling Island (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) in 1988 (Wikipedia).

A Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus Pallas, 1811) at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, UAE. Photo by my precious daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/18981213089

Description


This is the largest species of flamingo, averaging 110–150 cm (43–60 in) tall and weighing 2–4 kg (4.4–8.8 lbs). The largest male flamingos have been recorded at up to 187 cm (74 in) tall and 4.5 kg (10 lbs). It is closely related to the American flamingo and Chilean flamingo, with which it has sometimes been considered conspecific, but that treatment is now widely seen (e.g., by the American and British Ornithologists' Union) as incorrect and based on insufficient evidence (Wikipedia).

Like all flamingos, this species lays a single chalky-white egg on a mud mound. Most of the plumage is pinkish-white, but the wing coverts are red and the primary and secondary flight feathers are black. The bill is pink with a restricted black tip, and the legs are entirely pink. The call is a goose-like honking. Sub-adult flamingos are whitish-grey and only attain the pink coloration several years into their adult life. The coloration comes from the carotenoid pigments in the organisms that live in their feeding grounds (Wikipedia).


The bird resides in mudflats and shallow coastal lagoons with salt water. Using its feet, the bird stirs up the mud, and then sucks water through its bill and filters out small shrimp, seeds, blue-green algae, microscopic organisms and mollusks. The greater flamingo feeds with its head down and its upper jaw is movable and not rigidly fixed to its skull (Wikipedia).

The Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus), the Reef Heron (Egretta gularis), the Great Egret (Ardea alba) and the Black-headed Gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, UAE. Photo by my precious daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/19161755152/

Lifespan


The average lifespan in captivity, according to Zoo Basel, is over 60 years.

The oldest known greater flamingo was a bird at the Adelaide Zoo in Australia who died aged at least 83 years old. The bird's exact age is not known; he was already a mature adult when he arrived in Adelaide in 1933. He was euthanized in January 2014 due to complications of old age. Known as "Greater" or "Flamingo 1", Adelaide Zoo's greater flamingo survived an attack by four youths in 2008 (Wikipedia).

The Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) and the Reef Heron (Egretta gularis) at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, UAE. Photo by my precious daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/18545156394/

Relationship with Humans


Captivity


The first recorded zoo hatch was in 1959 at Zoo Basel. In Zoo Basel's breeding program over 400 birds have been hatched with an average of between 20 and 27 per year since 2000.

In January, 2014, an 83-year-old greater flamingo, believed to be the oldest in the world, died at the Adelaide Zoo in Australia where it had lived since 1933 (Wikipedia).

The Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) and the Reef Heron (Egretta gularis) at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, UAE. Photo by my precious daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/19171312601/

Threats


In the Rann of Kutch salt marsh of India and Pakistan, greater flamingos are occasionally electrocuted when they sit on 1000-watt electric cables near their breeding areas. Recently 139 deaths were officially recorded in the region (Wikipedia).


History


Roman emperors considered flamingo tongues a delicacy (Wikipedia).

The Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) and the Reef Heron (Egretta gularis) at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, UAE. Photo by my precious daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/19167867015/

Greater Flamingos at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary


As breeding season looms, flocks of greater flamingoes at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (RAKWS) are preening, plumping up their feathers and preparing for their annual migration towards their traditional breeding grounds to start the circle of life once more (Robertson, 2013).


Yet during the summer months about half of these — about 1,500 — remain on the Dubai Creek’s wetlands, filtering brine through upside down bills, simply because, like many tourists, they enjoy visiting in this city of superlatives (Robertson, 2013).


The colony at the Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary is fed twice a day - at 9.00 am and 4.00 pm - with specially produced, cereal-based pellets that contain added vitamins and nutrients (Simpson, 2012).


Two hundred kilograms of this is scattered into the water at four locations daily to supplement the food the birds find for themselves, which includes marine worms, small crustaceans and invertebrates (Simpson, 2012).


"The main reason the flamingos are here is that the site is rich in food anyway," said the Ecologist Kevin Hyland from the Wildlife Protection Office. "The idea of the supplemental feed is to habituate them to people, to get them relaxed, as you wouldn't normally be able to get close to wild flamingos”. "It's also to give them a bit of a boost and to encourage them to breed and stay" (Simpson, 2012).

A Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, UAE. Photo by my precious daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/18980267920/

The flamingo colony seems to be thriving on its diet - the latest count revealed that the population has reached an all-time peak, topping the 3,000 mark for the first time (Simpson, 2012).


A total of 3,031 greater flamingos were counted on January 15, 2012, up from the 2,706 recorded on November 8, 2010. The latest count was part of a worldwide census of water birds (Simpson, 2012).


The population reaches a peak in the winter and declines as the temperature rises because many of the birds fly to sites in other countries, although about 1,000 remain in Dubai throughout the summer (Simpson, 2012).


"They go all over the place, but we know for sure some go to Iran and Turkey, so basically they fly north to get away from the heat," said Mr. Hyland (Simpson, 2012).

The Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) and the Reef Heron (Egretta gularis) at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, UAE. Photo by my precious daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/19141866606/

The Ramsar Convention, signed by the UAE in 2007, is a global intergovernmental treaty that lays out strategy for the conservation and sensible use of wetlands all over the world. “It is up to us in the UAE to do more to protect these birds. Ras Al Khor is a wintering and refueling post for many migrating species of birds on the invisible West Asia/East Africa flyway. Its protection is of great importance for the survival of many,” says the Ecologist Mr. Hyland (Robertson, 2013).


Ras Al Khor is a wintering and refueling post for many migrating species of birds on the invisible East Asia/East Africa flyway. Its protection is of great importance for the survival of many (Robertson, 2013).


At present, Ras Al Khor is home to 270 bird species and other forms of wildlife. It also boasts various ecosystems from mangroves, mudflats, lagoons and sabkhas to reed beds and shrub lands (Robertson, 2013).


All this can typically be viewed from one of two accessible hides (platforms) with fantastically sharp binoculars for close-ups of the birds without disturbing them. The flamingo roost is off the junction of Al-Wasl and Oud Metha Roads, and the Mangrove hide, off Ras Al Khor Road, are open from 7.30 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. for individuals or family groups, but larger groups need to apply for an entry permit on the Dubai Municipality website.

The New Downtown Dubai with Burj Khalifa behind the Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, UAE. Photo by my precious daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/19171718351/

The website also indicates that future plans include building a state-of-the-art visitor’s centre. On completion, this technologically advanced centre will easily let visitor’s access information and offer a closer understanding of the sanctuary’s biological diversity (Robertson, 2013).


Dr. Reza Khan, Specialist, Wildlife and Zoo Management at the Public Parks and Horticulture Department, Dubai Municipality, says after the stopover in Dubai some flamingos return to where they came from — Lake Urmia (formerly Lake Rezaiyeh) in Iran, the Caspian Sea, coastal areas of Iran and central Asia and increasing numbers from coastal areas and islands off Abu Dhabi. Hyland adds that regular flamingo visitors to Ras Al Khor included those from the Gediz Delta of the eastern Mediterranean (Robertson, 2013).

Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa and his beloved daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, UAE. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/18547679153/

Relatively few breeding sites exist worldwide. If flamingoes could be encouraged to breed in this 620-hectare sanctuary of intertidal mud flats and lagoons fringed by mangroves, the birds would have an alternative to a major breeding ground in Iran. Conditions at Lake Urmia are deteriorating rapidly as the lake’s salinity has increased, mainly due to a water shortage caused by drought and human overuse (Robertson, 2013).


The future for the beautiful pink birds may not be entirely rosy due to problems at a key breeding site (Simpson, 2012).


"The birds here are pretty much linked with Lake Urmia in north-west Iran, which covers 483,000 hectares and contains their traditional and known breeding grounds," said Mr. Hyland. "The salinity there has risen so much and the water levels have dropped so much that the breeding colony seems to have failed - they are not breeding" (Simpson, 2012).


Other flamingos come from Turkey and a third group is believed to come from a breeding ground in Abu Dhabi. There are also populations at Ras Al Khaimah and Umm Al Quwain, and in wet years the birds settle on stretches of flood water on the east coast (Simpson, 2012).


"They are very opportunistic - if it rains and floods, they love it," said Mr. Hyland. "Up where Tecom is now on Sheikh Zayed Road there was a really good flamingo feeding area after heavy rain - there were hundreds just outside the Emirates Golf Club up until 1999" (Simpson, 2012).

Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa and his beloved daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf observing the birds at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/18980672350/

The flamingos at Ras Al Khor are entering their breeding season, but none has ever bred there (Simpson, 2012).


Some individuals are showing their breeding colours and, encouragingly, a number are building nests, although fewer than in recent years. It is thought that they are put off by traffic noise and the flash of headlights from nearby roads, and by disturbance from passing aircraft (Simpson, 2012).

Other species such as black-wing stilts, Kentish plovers and red mottled lapwings do manage to breed despite the distractions (Simpson, 2012).

They and the flamingos share the reserve, which is run by Dubai Municipality, with many other types of bird, including marsh harriers, grey herons, eagles, ringed plovers, avocets, pintails, teal, kingfishers, spoonbills and snipe (Simpson, 2012).


Lurking in the nutrient-rich waters are queenfish and milkfish measuring up to a metre long (Simpson, 2012).


Less welcome residents include foxes, which prey on the birds, while a member of staff on his way to feed the flamingos last week was startled by the sudden appearance of a snake (Simpson, 2012).


Bird enthusiast Tommy Pedersen, who runs the uaebirding.com website, said: "Having a sanctuary like Ras Al Khor inside the city borders has provided many hours of joy during my 10 years as a resident of Dubai. A total of 182 species of birds have been recorded at the site but the greater flamingo is certainly the key attraction (Simpson, 2012).


"Just browsing through the visitors books at the hides shows how appreciated this place is by tourists and residents alike" (Simpson, 2012).


Dr. Khan says His Highness Sheikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai’s office and Dubai Municipality vis-à-vis the members of the Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary Management Committee are striving to improve the habitats and bird watching facilities to attract more birds and visitors (Robertson, 2013).


The most immediate need is for simple habitat enhancement schemes, such as returning dredged fill back into the water to allow more waders access (Robertson, 2013).

My beloved daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf observing and photographing the birds at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Khalaf-von Jaffa. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/18982291989/

References and Internet Websites


ABC News (31.01.2014). Flamingo believed to be world's oldest dies at Adelaide Zoo aged 83. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-01-31/adelaide-zoo27s-83-year-old-flamingo-put-down/5230258 

Dardona, Ayman Wadi’ Youssef (M.Sc. Limnology) and Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa (Dr.Sc. Zoology) (2015). Studying Aquatic Birds in the area between the Gaza Fishermen Port and Wadi Gaza Estuary, Gaza Strip, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 124, April 2015. pp. 22-39. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://birds-of-palestine.webs.com/gaza-aquatic-birds

Khalaf, Nora Norman Ali Bassam (Fotografin, 11 Jahre) (28 Juni 2010). Foto: Junger Strauß, Vogel und Tier Markt, Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/display/21915604 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie’t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (in Arabic). 
Khalaf, Norman Ali (1983). The Pine Bunting in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. First Year. Number 1. July 1983. pp. 10-13. Al Salimiah, State of Kuwait. (In Arabic). http://issuu.com/dr-normanalibassamkhalaf/docs/the_pine_bunting_in_palestine_gazel/1 
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1984). The Palestine Bulbul. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Second Year. Number 5. May 1984. pp. 19-20. Hanweiler, Saarland, Federal Republic of Germany. (in Arabic). 
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1984-1985). The Weasel Project: Scientific Research on captive weasels (Mustela nivalis, Linnaeus 1766) in the Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, England, during the Academic Year 1984-1985. Supervisor: Dr. Nigel Dunstone. Unpublished scientific research and data & scientific diary. Research Notebook. pp. 1-52. 
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1985). The Arabian Ostrich. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom. Volume 3. Number 6. April 1985. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1986). A List of the Birds of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178-6288. Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom. Number 8. Fourth Year. January 1986 AD, Jamada Oula 1406 H. pp. 1-24. (In Arabic and English).
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1987). A Trip to Kuwait Zoo, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year, Number 13, Ramadan 1407 AH, April 1987 AD. pp. 1-5. (in Arabic).  
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). A Trip to Zoo Budapest, Hungary. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 21, Ninth Year, January 1991. pp. 1-4. 
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae'q Al-Nouma'n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic). 
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Extinct and Endangered Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004 / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-014121-9. Erste Auflage, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten. Zweite erweiterte Auflage, August 2004: 460 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third Year, October 2005, Ramadan 1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA) (2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali (2005, 2006, 2007). Chapter 3: Geography, Flora and Fauna. Pages 32-39. In: Palestine: A Guide. By Mariam Shahin, Photography by George Azar. Co-Author: Norman Ali Khalaf. Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Publishing Group, 2005, 2006, 2007. xi + 471 pages. Appendices to page 500. http://ipsnewsite.mysite4now.com/journals.aspx?id=7323&jid=1&href=fulltext 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Palaestina. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/ 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Arabica. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin حيوانات فلسطين (The Animals of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178-6288. Number 69, September 2007. Pp. 1-4. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%
AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/

The Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) at Dubai Museum, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 21.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/18980935690/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm 


Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Zoologist, Ecologist and Geologist: The Scientific References (1980-2009). http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/ 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). An ancient Arabian Ostrich (Struthio camelus syriacus) egg-shell from the Village of Qidfa, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 96, December 2009, Thu Al Hijja 1430 AH. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://arabian-ostrich.webs.com/ 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). The Red-Necked Ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus Linnaeus, 1758) at Dubai Zoo, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 96, December 2009, Thu Al Hijja 1430 AH. pp. 26-28. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.  http://arabian-ostrich.webs.com/ostrichdubaizoo.htm  

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Photographer) (09 December 2009). Photo: Ancient Arabian Ostrich Egg Shell / Alte arabische Straußeneischale. Emirat Fujairah, V. A. Emirate. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/mypics/1213259/display/22065236 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Photographer) (15 December 2009). Photo: Ancient Arabian Ostrich Egg Shell, Qidfa Village, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/mypics/1213259/display/21831255 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Fotograf) (04 August 2010). Foto: Nordafrikanische Strauß, Dubai Zoo, Dubai, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/mypics/1213259/display/21993963 

Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa observing the birds at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, UAE. Photo by my beloved daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/19142667966/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm 


Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm 


Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm 


Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2014). Fauna Palaestina – Part Four. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2014 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Vier. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2014. ISBN 978-9950-383-77-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2014, Ramadan 1435 H. pp. 456 (English part 378 pages and Arabic part 78 pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-part-1.webs.com/faunapalaestina4.htm 


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Animals living inside and around the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram) in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 116, August 2014, Shawal 1435 AH. pp. 1-23. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-makkah.webs.com/

The Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) at Dubai Museum, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 21.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/18988627918/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf Award for Biodiversity in Palestine 2012 / 2013 : Essay and Photography Contest of the Palestine Sunbird  (Cinnyris osea Bonaparte, 1856). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 124, April 2015. pp. 1-21. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/drnormanakhalafaward.htm 


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Plants and Animals unique to Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 125, May 2015. pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine-2.webs.com/ 


Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2015). Fauna Palaestina – Part Five. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2016 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Fünf. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2016. ISBN 978-9950-383-92-0. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2015, Ramadan 1436 H. 448 pp. (English Part 304 Pages and the Arabic Part 144 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-books.webs.com/ 


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The First Palestinian Wildlife Photography Exhibition in the Gaza Strip in November 2014. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 138, June 2016. pp. 1-35. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/gazawildlifephoto2014.htm 


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The Presence of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 139, July 2016. pp. 1-23. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-uae.webs.com/

Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa observing the birds at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, UAE. Photo by my beloved daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/18548161643/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 140, August 2016. pp. 1-21. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-palestine-2.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The Desert Tawny Owl (Strix hadorami Kirwan, Schweizer and Copete, 2015): New Species of Bird Discovered in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 142, October 2016. pp. 1-13. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://birds-of-palestine.webs.com/desert-tawny-owl 


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The Pine Bunting (Emberiza leucocephalos Gmelin, S.G., 1771) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 143, November 2016, pp. 1-6. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (In Arabic). http://birds-of-palestine.webs.com/pine-bunting 


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). Haywanat Falastin (Fauna of Palestine) حيوانات فلسطين . Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 144, December 2016, pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (In Arabic). http://animals-of-palestine-2.webs.com/fauna-of-palestine-arabic 


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2017). Bateleur Eagle (Terathopius ecaudatus Daudin, 1800) : A Rare Record in Palestine in 2015 / Der Gaukler (Terathopius ecaudatus) in Palästina / العُقاب البهلواني أو العُقاب المُصفق : من الطيور النادرة في فلسطين . Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 145, January 2017. pp. 1-22. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In English, German and Arabic). http://birds-of-palestine.webs.com/bateleur-eagle 


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher & Nora Norman Ali Khalaf (Photography) (2017). Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus Pallas, 1811) at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 146, February 2017. pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-uae.webs.com/greater-flamingo 


Khalaf, Ola Mostafa (Fotografin) (27 July 2007). Foto: Strauß, Qaryet Al Asad (Löwe Dorf), Kairo-Alexandria Wüsten-Straße, Ägypten. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/extra/buddies/display/21947580 
Khalaf, Ola Mostafa (Fotografin) (02 August 2010). Foto: Afrikanische Straußeneier / African Ostrich Egg-shell. Souk Al Arsah, Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/extra/buddies/display/22032858

Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa observing the birds at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, UAE. Photo by my beloved daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 13.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/19142716496/

The Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) at Dubai Museum, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 28.06.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/19285507855/

The Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) at an exhibition in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Photo by Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf-von Jaffa. 08.05.2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/19295256302/

A painting of the Greater Flamingo. A Special Painting which was painted for this article by my friend the Biologist and Artist Raguib Uddin Ahmed from Dhaka, Bangladesh. 30.06.2015 … The Greater Flamingo was living and breeding in Bangladesh; but since the last 50 years it was not seen or reported. This bird was hunted at the Dublar Char - a sea side part of the great World Heritage site The Sundarbans between 1930-1940’s.