Spotted Eagle Ray

The Spotted Eagle Ray (Aetobatus narinari Euphrasen, 1790) from Dubai, United Arab Emirates and Umm Al-Rashrash (Eilat), Occupied Palestine

سمك الشفنين النسري المُنقط من دُبي ، دولة الإمارات العربية المُتحدة و أم الرشراش (إيلات) ، فلسطين المُحتلة

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

Article Reference :  Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa (2017). The Spotted Eagle Ray (Aetobatus narinari Euphrasén, 1790) from Dubai, United Arab Emirates and Umm Al-Rashrash (Eilat), Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 151, July 2017, pp. 1-19. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-uae.webs.com/spotted-eagle-ray

سمك الشفنين النسري المُنقط "يُحلق" سابحاً في خور دُبي ، دولة الإمارات العربية المُتحدة ... عدسة أ. د. نورمان علي بسام علي طاهر مُحمد أحمد مُصطفى خلف اليافاوي ... يعيش هذا النوع من سمك الشفنين المُهدد بالإنقراض في المُحيط الهندي والخليج العربي والبحر الأحمر ، كما يعيش في المياه المدارية للمُحيطين الأطلسي والهادي ؛ ويصل طوله إلى خمسة أمتار ، ويصل طول باعي "جناحيه" إلى 3 أمتار ، كما يصل وزنه إلى 230 كيلوجراماً ؛ وهو يعيش حتى عمق 80 متراً ، ويتغذى على الأسماك الصغيرة والقشريات والرخويات ؛ وهو يُعتبر من فرائس أسماك القرش ؛ وحتى يُدافع عن نفسه فإنه يقوم بإستخدام ذيله الذي يحوي عدة أشواك سامة . 26.11.2015 

Spotted Eagle Ray swimming in the Sea of Umm Al-Rashrash (Eilat), Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Photo is taken from a YouTube film by Yana Zakrevski in October 2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vl3BPaVjrdY

The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari) is a cartilaginous fish of the eagle ray family, Myliobatidae. It can be found globally in tropical regions, including the Gulf of MexicoHawaii, off the coast of West Africa, the Indian Ocean, Oceania, and on both coasts of the Americas at depths down to about 80 meters (262 feet). The rays are most commonly seen alone, but occasionally swim in groups. Rays are ovoviviparous, the female retaining the eggs then releasing the young as miniature versions of the parent (Wikipedia).

This ray can be identified by its dark dorsal surface covered in white spots or rings. Near the base of the ray's relatively long tail, just behind the pelvic fins, are several venomous, barbed stingers. Spotted eagle rays commonly feed on small fish and crustaceans, and will sometimes dig with their snouts to look for food buried in the sand of the sea bed. These rays are commonly observed leaping out of the water, and on at least two occasions have been reported as having jumped into boats, in one incident resulting in the death of a woman in the Florida Keys. The spotted eagle ray is hunted by a wide variety of sharks. The rays are considered near threatened on the IUCN Red List. They are fished mainly in Southeast Asia and Africa, the most common market being in commercial trade and aquariums. They are protected in the Great Barrier Reef (Wikipedia).

Spotted Eagle Ray swimming in the Sea of Umm Al-Rashrash (Eilat), Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Photo is taken from a YouTube film by Yana Zakrevski in October 2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vl3BPaVjrdY

Taxonomy

The spotted eagle ray was first described by Swedish botanist Bengt Anders Euphrasén as Raja narinari in 1790 from a specimen collected at an unknown location (possibly the coast of Brazil) during a trip he made to the Antilles, and was later classified as Stoasodon narinari. Its current genus name is Aetobatus, derived from the Greek words aetos (eagle) and batis (ray). The spotted eagle ray belongs to the Myliobatidae family, which includes the well-known manta ray. Most rays in the Myliobatidae swim in the open ocean rather than close to the sea floor (Wikipedia).

The spotted eagle ray has many different common names, including white-spotted eagle ray, bonnet skate, bonnet ray, duckbill ray and spotted duck-billed ray (Wikipedia).

Description

Spotted eagle rays have flat disk-shaped bodies, deep blue or black with white spots on top with a white underbelly, and distinctive flat snouts similar to a duck's bill. Their tails are longer than those of other rays and may have 2–6 venomous spines, just behind the pelvic fins. The front half of the long and wing-like pectoral disk has five small gills in its underside (Wikipedia).

Mature spotted eagle rays can be up to 5 meters (16 feet) in length; the largest have a wing span of up to 3 meters (10 feet) and a mass of 230 kilograms (507 lb) (Wikipedia).

Spotted Eagle Ray swimming in the Sea of Umm Al-Rashrash (Eilat), Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Photo is taken from a YouTube film by Yana Zakrevski in October 2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vl3BPaVjrdY

Reproduction

One male, or sometimes several, will pursue a female. When one of the males approaches the female, he uses his upper jaw to grab her dorsum. The male will then roll the female over by grabbing one of her pectoral fins, which are located on either side of her body. Once he is on her ventral side, the male puts a clasper into the female, connecting them venter to venter, with both undersides together. The mating process lasts for 30–90 seconds (Wikipedia).

The spotted eagle ray develops ovoviviparously; the eggs are retained in the female and hatch internally, feeding off a yolk sac until live birth. After a gestation period of one year the mother ray will give birth to a maximum of four pups. When the pups are first born, their discs measure from 170–350 millimeters (6.7–13.8 inch) across. The rays mature in 4 to 6 years (Wikipedia).

Spotted Eagle Ray swimming in the Sea of Umm Al-Rashrash (Eilat), Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Photo is taken from a YouTube film by Yana Zakrevski in October 2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vl3BPaVjrdY

Feeding and Diet

Spotted eagle ray preys mainly upon bivalves, crabs, whelks, benthic infauna; they also feed on mollusks, crustaceans, particularly malacostracans; and also upon hermit crabs, shrimp, octopi, and some small fish (Wikipedia).

The spotted eagle ray's specialized chevron-shaped tooth structure helps it to crush the mollusks' hard shells. The jaws of these rays have developed calcified struts to help them break through the shells of mollusks, by supporting the jaws and preventing dents from hard prey. These rays have the unique behavior of digging with their snouts in the sand of the ocean. While doing this, a cloud of sand surrounds the ray and sand spews from its gills. One study has shown that there are no differences in the feeding habits of males and females or in rays from different regions of Australia and Taiwan (Wikipedia).

Behaviour

Spotted eagle rays prefer to swim in waters of 24 to 27 °C (75 to 81 °F). Their daily movement is influenced by the tides; one tracking study showed that they are more active during high tides. Uniquely among rays they dig with their snouts in the sand, surrounding themselves in a cloud of sand that spews from their gills. They also exhibit two motions in which the abdomen and the pectoral fins are moved rapidly up and down: the pelvic thrust and the extreme pelvic thrust. The pelvic thrust is usually performed by a solitary ray, and repeated four to five times rapidly. The extreme pelvic thrust is most commonly observed when the ray is swimming in a group, from which it will separate itself before vigorously thrusting with its pectoral fins. The rays also perform dips and jumps; in a dip the ray will dive and then come back up rapidly, perhaps as many as five times consecutively. There are two main types of jump: in one, the ray propels itself vertically out of the water, to which it returns along the same line; the other is when the ray leaps at a 45 degree angle, often repeated multiple times at high speeds. When in shallow waters or outside their normal swimming areas the rays are most commonly seen alone, but they do also congregate in schools. One form of traveling is called loose aggregation, which is when three to sixteen rays are swimming in a loose group, with occasional interactions between them. A school commonly consists of six or more rays swimming in the same direction at exactly the same speed (Wikipedia).

Spotted Eagle Ray swimming in the Sea of Umm Al-Rashrash (Eilat), Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Photo is taken from a YouTube film by Yana Zakrevski in October 2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vl3BPaVjrdY

Human Interaction

The dorsal spots make the spotted eagle ray an aquarium attraction, although because of its large size it is likely kept only at public aquariums. There are no target fisheries for the spotted eagle ray, but it is often eaten after being caught unintentionally as bycatch. There have been several reported incidents of spotted eagle rays leaping out of the water onto boats and landing on people. Nevertheless, spotted eagle rays do not pose a significant threat to humans, as they are shy and generally avoid human contact. Interactions with an individual snorkeler in the Caribbean has been reported especially in Jamaica involving one, two and even three spotted eagle rays. The rays may exhibit a behavior similar to human curiosity which allows the snorkeler to observe the eagle ray that may slow down so as to share more time with the much slower human observer if the human observer appears to be unthreatening or interesting to the spotted eagle ray (Wikipedia).

Spotted Eagle Ray swimming in the Sea of Umm Al-Rashrash (Eilat), Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Photo is taken from a YouTube film by Yana Zakrevski in October 2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vl3BPaVjrdY

Predators

Spotted eagle rays, in common with many other rays, often fall victim to sharks such as the tiger shark, the lemon shark, the bull shark, the silver tip shark, and the great hammerhead shark. A great hammerhead shark has been observed attacking a spotted eagle ray in open water by taking a large bite out of one of its pectoral fins, thus incapacitating the ray. The shark then used its head to pin the ray to the bottom and pivoted to take the ray in its jaws, head first. Sharks have also been observed to follow female rays during the birthing season, and feed on the newborn pups (Wikipedia).

Parasites

As other rays, spotted eagle rays are host to a variety of parasites. Internal parasites include the gnathostomatid nematode Echinocephalus sinensis in the spiral intestine. External parasites include the monocotylid monogeneans Decacotyle octonaDecacotyle elpora and Thaumatocotyle pseudodasybatis on the gills (Wikipedia).

Spotted Eagle Ray (Aetobatus narinari) gliding through the sea waters of Dubai Creek, Dubai, United Arab Emirates .. Photo by Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa Khalaf-von Jaffa .. 26.11.2015 . https:[email protected]/22772997293/

سمك الشفنين النسري المُنقط "يُحلق" سابحاً في خور دُبي ، دولة الإمارات العربية المُتحدة ... عدسة أ. د. نورمان علي بسام علي طاهر مُحمد أحمد مُصطفى خلف اليافاوي ... يعيش هذا النوع من سمك الشفنين المُهدد بالإنقراض في المُحيط الهندي والخليج العربي والبحر الأحمر ، كما يعيش في المياه المدارية للمُحيطين الأطلسي والهادي ؛ ويصل طوله إلى خمسة أمتار ، ويصل طول باعي "جناحيه" إلى 3 أمتار ، كما يصل وزنه إلى 230 كيلوجراماً ؛ وهو يعيش حتى عُمق 80 متراً ، ويتغذى على الأسماك الصغيرة والقشريات والرخويات ؛ وهو يُعتبر من فرائس أسماك القرش ؛ وحتى يُدافع عن نفسه فإنه يقوم بإستخدام ذيله الذي يحوي عدة أشواك سامة . 26.11.2016  

Distribution and Habitat

Spotted eagle rays are found globally in tropical regions from the Indo-Pacific region from the western Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the western Atlantic Ocean (Wikipedia).

They are found in shallow coastal water by coral reefs and bays, in depths down to 80 meters (262 feet). Spotted eagle rays are found in warm and temperate waters worldwide. In the western Atlantic Ocean it is found off the eastern coast of United States of America, the Gulf Stream, the Caribbean, and down past the southern part of Brazil. In the Indian Ocean, it is found from the Red Sea down to South Africa and eastward to the Andaman Sea. In the western Pacific Ocean, it can be found from the Red Sea to South Africa and also in northern Japan and Australia. In the Eastern-Pacific Ocean, it is found in the Gulf of California down through Puerto Pizarro, an area that includes the Galapagos Islands. Spotted eagle rays are most commonly seen in bays and reefs. They spend much of their time swimming freely in open waters, generally in schools close to the surface, and can travel long distances in a day (Wikipedia).

World distribution map of the Spotted Eagle Ray (Aetobatus narinari). https://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/discover/species-profiles/aetobatus-narinari/

Conservation

The spotted eagle ray is included in the IUCN's Red List as "near threatened". The rays are caught mainly in Southeast Asia and Africa. They are also common in commercial marine life trade and are displayed in aquariums. Among the many efforts to help protect this species, South Africa's decision to deploy fewer protective shark nets has reduced the number of deaths caused by entanglement. South Africa has also placed restrictions on the number of rays that can be bought per person per day. In the state of Florida in the United States, the fishing, landing, purchasing and trading of spotted eagle ray is outlawed. The spotted eagle ray is also protected in the Great Barrier Reef on the eastern coast of Australia (Wikipedia).

References and Internet Websites

Atlantis The Palm, Dubai. Blog. Baby Spotted Eagle Ray born in the Ambassador Lagoon at the Lost Chambers Aquarium. http://blog.atlantisthepalm.com/2012/10/29/baby-eagal-ray-born-at-the-lost-chambers-aquarium/dsc06832_small/ BioWeb. Spotted Eagle Ray Aetobatus narinari. https://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2014/southwic_carl/adaptation.htm Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Spotted Eagle Ray (Aetobatus narinari). http://environment.bm/spotted-eagle-ray/ Encyclopedia of Life. Aetobatus narinari Spotted Eagle Ray. http://eol.org/pages/218712/details Flickr. Spotted Eagle Ray (Aetobatus narinari) gliding through the sea waters of Dubai Creek, Dubai, UAE. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 26.11.2015. https:[email protected]/22773056933 Florida Museum of Natural History. Aetobatus narinari, Spotted Eagle Ray. https://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/discover/species-profiles/aetobatus-narinari/ IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Aetobatus narinari. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/39415/0 Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie’t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (In Arabic).
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1981). Fawa'ed Alasmak. (The Benefits of Fishes). Al-Biology Magazine, Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. Number 1. Sunday 7.6.1981, 5. Sha'ban 1401. pp. 54-55. (In Arabic).
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Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali B. (1993). Al-Mushkilatan Al-Ma’eyah wa Al-Bi’eyah fi Al-Dafah Al-Gharbiyah wa Qita’ Ghaza Al-Muhtalain (Ka-Juzu’ min Al-Sharq Al-Awsat) [The Water and the Ecological Problems in the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip (As Part of the Middle East)]. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 31. Eleventh Year. December 1993. Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany. pp. 1- 29. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae’q Al-Nouma’n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (In Arabic).
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Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Jewfish (Epinephelus itajara) / Der Riesenzackenbarsch oder Judenfisch (Epinephelus itajara). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 9-12.
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Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980 - 2005. ISBN 3-00-014835-3. Erste Auflage / First Edition, August 2005: 376 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm
Khalaf, N.A.B. (2005). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). [M.Sc. Dissertation in Ecology, Departments of Zoology and Botany, University of Durham, England. September 1986. pps. 59 + iv]. In: Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005. Erste Auflage, August 2005. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 28-93.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third Year, October 2005, Ramadan 1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA) (2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Ein Besuch im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland / A Visit to Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 59, November 2006. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabisch / Arabic). http://khalaf.homepage24.de/text_88839638_85658724_59480041_deutsch.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Palaestina. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit August 2007). Haie – Sharks Yahoo! Deutschland Group. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Haie_Sharks/
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Arabica. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin حيوانات فلسطين (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth Year, September 2007 CE, Sha’ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) caught off the Kuwaiti Coast: The Second Record from the State of Kuwait, Arabian / Persian Gulf. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/whalesharkinkuwait.htm Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Rhiniodon typus Smith, 1828 or Rhincodon typus Smith, 1829: The Story of a Scientific Name. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 21. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://whale-shark.webs.com/rhiniodontypus.htm Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) rescued near the Tantura Beach, Carmel Coast, North Palestine: The First Record from the Palestinian Mediterranean Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 22-23. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: Whale Sharks (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) near Um Al-Rashrash (Eilat) Beach, Gulf of Aqaba, South Palestine: First Records from the Palestinian Red Sea Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 23-26. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstract in English and Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). An Ocean Sunfish or Common Mola (Mola mola, Linnaeus 1758) caught off the coast of Gaza: The First Record from Palestine, East Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 72, December 2007, pp. 1-16. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Fauna_Palaestina/conversations/messages/37 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Cetacea Palaestina: The Whales and Dolphins in Palestinian Waters. Cetacean Species Guide for Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 83, November 2008, Thu Al-Qi’ada 1429 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://cetacea-palaestina.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). A Longcomb Sawfish (Pristis zijsron Bleeker, 1851) caught off the coast of Dibba, United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 88, April 2009, Rabi’e Al Thani 1430 AH. pp. 1-14. http://dibba-sawfish.webs.com/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr.Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009 : A New Blind Cave Fish Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 90, June 2009, Jumada Al-Akhera 1430 AH. pp. 1-15. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://emirati-blind-cave-fish.webs.com/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Oreochromis mossambicus bassamkhalafi Khalaf, 2009 : A New Mozambique Tilapia Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 92, August 2009, Sha’ban 1430 AH. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://emirati-tilapia.webs.com/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Bowmouth Guitarfish (Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider, 1801) at Sharjah Aquarium, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 93, September 2009, Ramadan 1430 AH. pp. 1-18. http://bowmouth-guitarfish-emirates.webs.com/bowmouthguitarfishuae.htm Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) Records from the United Arab Emirates between 1989 - 2009. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 94, October 2009, Shawal 1430 AH. pp. 1-28. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
http://whale-shark.webs.com/whalesharkinemirates.htm Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Zoologist, Ecologist and Geologist : The Scientific References (1980-2009). http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm Khalaf, Dr. Norman Ali (Zoologist) (2011). A note on the Coelacanth of Kuwait. Readers’ Letters, National Geographic Al Arabiya Magazine. April 2011, Volume 2, Number 7, pp. 8. (In Arabic). http:[email protected]/10122383976/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013: A New Freshwater Doctor Fish Subspecies from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 103, July 2013, Ramadan 1434 AH. pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/palestine-doctor-fish Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Taxon Profile: Subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013. BioLib.cz. Biological Library. http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1059609/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Palestine Doctor Fish (Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013). EOL. Encyclopedia of Life. http://eol.org/collections/80813 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Freshwater Fishes in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 104, August 2013, Shawal 1434 AH. pp. 1-17. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). † Coelacanthus sharjah Khalaf, 2013 : A New Coelacanth Fish Fossil Species from Sharjah Natural History and Botanical Museum, Sharjah, Emirate of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 106, October 2013, Thu Al Hijja 1434 AH. pp. 18–38. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/coelacanthussharjah.htm Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Taxon Profile: Species Sharjah Coelacanth Coelacanthus sharjah Khalaf, 2013. BioLib. Biological Library. http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1068520/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Sharjah Coelacanth († Coelacanthus sharjah Khalaf, 2013). EOL. Encyclopedia of Life. http://eol.org/collections/95987/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). † Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013 : A New Coelacanth Fish Fossil Species from the Anthracothere Hill in Al-Naqab, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 107, November 2013, Muharram 1435 AH. pp. 30-38. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/macropomoidespalaestina.htm Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Taxon Profile: Species Palestine Coelacanth Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013 †. BioLib. Biological Library. http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1075889/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Palestine Coelacanth († Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013). EOL. Encyclopedia of Life. http://eol.org/collections/97239 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). A Coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) Model at the Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig in Bonn, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 111, March 2014, Jumada Al Oula 1435 AH. pp. 1–9. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/coelacanthmuseumkoenig.htm Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) at the Educational Science Museum, Kuwait City, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 112, April 2014, Jumada Al Akhera 1435 AH. pp. 1–10. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/coelacanthkuwait2013.htm Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). Facebook. Biodiversity Arabia. Arabian Killifish. 19.04.2014. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152317046064831&set=p.10152317046064831&type=1&pnref=story Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2014). Fauna Palaestina – Part Four. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2014 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Vier. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2014. ISBN 978-9950-383-77-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2014, Ramadan 1435 H. 456 Pages (English Part 378 Pages and the Arabic Part 78 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-part-1.webs.com/faunapalaestina4.htm

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Plants and Animals unique to Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 125, May 2015. pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine-2.webs.com/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2015). Fauna Palaestina – Part Five. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2016 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Fünf. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2016. ISBN 978-9950-383-92-0. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2015, Ramadan 1436 H. 448 pp. (English Part 304 Pages and the Arabic Part 144 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-books.webs.com/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (Photo) (26.11.2015). Flickr. Spotted Eagle Ray (Aetobatus narinari) gliding through the sea waters of Dubai Creek, Dubai, UAE. 26.11.2015. https:[email protected]/22773056933 Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (Video) (26.11.2015). YouTube Video. Spotted Eagle Ray at Dubai Creek 26.11.2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C1jL5CK7WnE Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). A Fish Fossil at the Notre Dame de Sion Ecce Homo Convent - Antonia Fortress, Old City, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178 – 6288). Number 132, December 2015. pp. 1-15. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/fish-fossil-notre-dame-sion Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The Arabian Killifish (Aphanius dispar Rüppel, 1829). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178 – 6288). Number 137, May 2016. pp. 1-10. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/arabian-killifish Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The First Palestinian Wildlife Photography Exhibition in the Gaza Strip in November 2014. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 138, June 2016. pp. 1-35. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/gazawildlifephoto2014.htm Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). Haywanat Falastin (Fauna of Palestine) حيوانات فلسطين . Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 144, December 2016, pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (In Arabic). http://animals-of-palestine-2.webs.com/fauna-of-palestine-arabic Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (2017). Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758) Nest Adoption at the Reef Dive Resort, Mataking Island, State of Sabah, Federation of Malaysia in 2015. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 149, May 2017, pp. 1-30. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.sea-turtles-1.webs.com Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (2017). The Oman Clownfish (Amphiprion omanensis Allen & Mee, 1991) and the Sebae Clownfish (Amphiprion sebae Bleeker, 1853) from the Shark Island Coral Reefs in Khor Fakkan, East Coast of the United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 150, June 2017, pp. 1-29. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-uae.webs.com/clownfish Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa (2017). The Spotted Eagle Ray (Aetobatus narinari Euphrasén, 1790) from Dubai, United Arab Emirates and Umm Al-Rashrash (Eilat), Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 151, July 2017, pp. 1-19. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-uae.webs.com/spotted-eagle-ray MarineBio. Spotted Eagle Rays, Aetobatus narinari. http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=58 MOTE Marine Laboratory & Aquarium. Spotted Eagle Ray Conservation. https://mote.org/research/program/spotted-eagle-ray-conservation Oceana. Spotted Eagle Ray Aetobatus narinari. http://oceana.org/marine-life/sharks-rays/spotted-eagle-ray SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment. Spotted Eagle Ray. https://seaworld.org/Animal-Info/Animal-Bytes/Cartilaginous-Fish/Spotted-Eagle-Ray Wikipedia. Gefleckter Adlerrochen. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gefleckter_Adlerrochen Wikipedia. Spotted Eagle Ray. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spotted_eagle_ray YouTube. Spotted eagle ray / Red sea, Eilat, Israel. Filmed and edited by Yana Zakrevski. October 2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vl3BPaVjrdY YouTube. Spotted Eagle Ray at Dubai Creek 26.11.2015. Video by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C1jL5CK7WnE